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Full text of "Rural supervision"

THE UNIVERSITY 



OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 

19 It 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/ruralsupervisionOOmorr 



RURAL SUPERVISION 



BY 

ALICE ELVIRA MORRIS 

A. B. University of Illinois, 1913 



THESIS 

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the 

Degree of 
MASTER OF ARTS 

IN EDUCATION 
IN 

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
1914 



M?>3 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 




6 , 19/^ 



HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER MY SUPERVISION BY 



ENTITLED 



BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING THIS PART OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 



DEGREE OF ^^O^G^^ 




Recommendation concurred in: 



Head of Department 



Committee 

on 

Final Examination 



UIUC 



CONTENTS. 

Chapter • 

I. History of a Few Typical States - -- -- -- --1 

Massachusetts 1 

Indian* 2 

Illinois 2 

Texas 3 

II. Title of Supervising Officers and Units of 

Supervision ---------------- 4 

Number and Sex of Rural Suj erint er.dent s - - - - 5 

Length of Term ----------------- 7 

How Appointed or Elected ------------ 7 

Oval i f i c at i ons - -----------------12 

III. Need of this Study - - 24 

Manner of Obtaining the Information ------ 25 

Probable Errors -----------------27 

Copy of Questionnaire ------- ------28 

IV. Composition of Supervisory Force --------- 35 

Sex --------- 35 

Age ----------- 35 

Nativity-- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - 36 

Nat ive language - -- -- -- -- - - -- -- 37 

Nativity of Parents -------------30 

Occupation of Fathers ------------40 

Siie of Parental Family - -- -- -- -- --41 

Marital Relation - -42 

Scholarship of Husbands or Wives - -- -- --43 

V, Qualification of Rural Superintendents 44 
Scholarship -----------------44 

Certification - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44 

Schooling Since Election ----------51 

Attendance at Teachers' Associations and 

Conventions ---------------53 

Experience in Teaching Including the Present 

Year of Superin tendency - - - - - - - - - 54 

Occupation Immediately Preceding Election - 58 

VI. Salary Received when Teaching --------- -61 

Salary at Present ----------------61 



VII. Work Performed by rural Superintendents ----- 63 
Number of Schools and Teachers under 

supervision ---------------63 

Number of Visits to Teachers ---------- 64 

County Institutes Held ------------69 

Township Institutes Held -----------71 

Other Teachers' Meetings -----------74 

Heading Circle Work -- — ---------- 75 

Number and Nature of Circulars sent to 

Teste hers - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77 

Other Means of Improvement of Teacheri 

Turing Service -------------79 

Teachers' Examinations and Certification - - - 30 
Fenewal of Cert if icat es -- - -- -- -- -- -- 32 

Written Reports Required from Teachers to 

Superintendents - -- -- -- -- -- - 35 

Measures of Merit of Teachers --------90 

Patrons' or Parents' meetings ---------93 

Circulars sent to Patrons -----------98 

Division of Time -------------- -ICO 

Assistants ----------------- -104 

Subjects Emphasized ------------- 106 

VIII. Handicaps Experienced by Rural Superintendents-- 108 
Suggested Improvements of Rural Schools - - - 109 

IX. The Typical Rural Superintendent of the United 

States ------------------- 112 

X. Correlations and Comparisons- 
Correlation of Time Spent in supervision or 
School Visitation with the number of Teachers 
Supervised ----------------- -115 

Correlation of Academic Training with 
Professional Interest - - - - - - - - - - - - 116 

XI. School Statistics of Illinois 

Quoted from Annual Reports ---------- 131 

XII. Views of State Superintendents concerning 

Rural Supervision -------------- 133 

XIII. Conclusions Drawn from the Study - ------ 139 

Appendix - - - 

Quotations from Prominent Writers on 

Education ----------------- 140 

Bibliography --------- ________ 148 



-1- 

Chaptsr I. 

History of School Supervision in a Few 
Typical States. 

The beginning of school supervision dates back 
to colonial times. It has grown and developed until near- 
ly every city is under the direction of a superintendent 
or group of supervisors. While the rural districts have 
not been so fortunate there is a tendency, beginning as 
might be expected in the East and extending to the far West, 
to place all country and village schools under supervision 
equal to that of the city. 

♦The history of the supervision of schools in 
Massachusetts is similar to that of the other eastern states. 
Supervision began with the occasional visits of the clergy- 
man and passed through the stages of the special committee 
who looked after all of the schools of the town, the district 
system with its prudential committee and one representative 
empowered to employ the teacher, to the return to the town 
system with its committeemen, who, when their labors increased 
and too large a demand was made on their time, appointed one 
of their number to give all of his time to supervision. 
Since 1902 all towns have been required to employ superintend- 
ents. These are paid by both state and town. A. K. finship 
declares that this is the only state which has close expert 



supervision for every rural school. 

The first school officers of Indiana were either 
laymen or ex-officio officers. They had charge of the 
school funds and examined, licensed, and employed teachers. 
In 1837, there were many school officers but no school-men 
with well defined duties. This number was gradually re- 
duced until, in 1861, there was only one examiner in a 
county whose duty was to visit the schools in his county as 
oftan as he deemed it necessary. In 1873, the office of 
county superintendent was created. Since then, says Supt. 
Cotton, "the supervision of rural schools has meant some- 
thing, the superintendent makes systematic supervision a 
large part of his work."* 

"The county superint endency of Illinois originated 
in an official who had nothing to do with the supervision 
Of schools. He was simply an agent to receive and disburse 
funds from the sale of public lands until 1345 when he was 
required to be ex-officio superintendent of common schools 
in his county. In 1365, his name was changed from commission 
er of schools to county superintendent of schools with super- 
vision as one of his chief duties.*' (Illinois School I-eport 
1908-1910, pages 297-3) 

California's school superintendent also evolved 
from the county treasurer. 
* 

Carl Hartman in Bulletin of Texas University. ' 



♦In Texas, the Jesuits controlled the few schools 
there were in the state until 1320. In 1840, Congress 
made the county judge and two justices of the peace an 
ex-officio board of school commissioners with full power to 
control all school property and to inspect the district 
schools. In 1854, the county judge was made ex-officio 
superintendent of schools. His duty was principally to 
keep books. Trustees were given supervisory authority. 
From 1866 to 1873, the schools were supervised in turn by 
examiners, district attorneys, and other numerous inspect- 
ors. In 1373, a county superintendent was chosen from one 
of the members of the County School Board, but three years 
later this office was abolished and the county judge once 
more made ex-officio county superintendent. Since 1337, 
county superintendents may be elected by the county commiss- 
ioners, but many judges are still ex-officio county superintend- 
ent s • 

The North Atlantic states took the lead in school 
supervision. The central and western states followed with 
the Southern in the rear.* 

* 

Carl Hartman in Bulletin of University of Texas. 



-4- 
Chapter II 

Title of Supervising Officers and 
Units of Supervision. 

The supervisors or superintendent of the rural 
schools are known by various names. In most cases, the 
name depends upon the unit supervised. In Porto Hico, 
the unit supervised is called a station; in the Phillipine 
Islands and Virginia, a division; in Vermont, a union; in 
Ohio, a township; in Massachusetts, a superintendency; in 
Connecticut and Rhode Island, a town; in Louisiana, a 
parish; in Alaska, Llaine, Hew Hampshire, New York, and West 
Virginia, a district; in Hawaii, a department; and in all 
the remaining states, a county. In Arkansas, the county 
superintendent is also county examiner, and in Texas 129 
of the 247 counties have judges who are ex-officio county 
superintendents. The unit of supervision of the New England 
States and Ohio is the town or township. In many instances, 
however, several of these have united to form a union under 
one superintendent. West Virginia has both county and dis- 
trict supervision. About one-haif of the counties are di- 
vided into smaller units called districts, each having its 
own superintendent. New York, since 1912, has substituted 
district for county supervision. The size of these districts 
varies from that of one-eighth to a whole county. Nevada 
is divided into five divisions and over each of these 18 



-5- 



department s, and over each is a supervising principal. 

Number and Sex of Rural School Superintendents. 

♦There are 3,780 rural superintendents or super- 
visors in the United States. This includes those of Porto 
Rico, the Phillipine Islands, and Alaska, and means super- 
visors of districts less than those of a state. 

Of the above number, 3,206 are men and 574 are 
women, or to express it in per cents, 84.8 are men and 15.1 
are women. Of the total number of women superintendents 
440 are west of the Mississippi hiver.* 

* 

United States Bureau of Education Bulletin 1913, number 46. 



-6- 



Table I. 

Rural Superintendents by States and Territories.* 

ioTT? ~oT"Tf ~iioT~"o7~ "o7~o7~" 

Lialea Females States Males Females 



Alab a ma 


67 




Mississippi 


79 




Arizona 


13 


1 


Missouri 


100 


14 


Arkansas 


82 




Mont ana 


1 


32 


Cali f ornia 


38 


20 


Nebraska 


48 


44 


Colorado 


14 


48 


Nevada 


5 




Delaware 


3 




New Jersey 


21 




Florida 


48 




New Mexico 


21 


5 


Georgia 


148 




North CarolinalOO 




Hawaii 


13 


7 


North Dakota 


30 


20 


Idaho 


9 


22 


Oklahoma 


57 


20 


Illinois 


9 2 


10 


Oregon 


34 




I ndi ana 


90 


2 


Pennsylvania 


66 




I o wa 


3 y 


60 


Sbuth Carolina 


44 




Kans as 


5 5 


50 


South Dakota 


30 




K.e n t uc xy 


102 


18 


Tennessee 


91 


5 


Loui s iana 


65 




Texas 


238 




Maryland 


23 




Utah 


27 


1 


Michigan 


69 


14 


Washington 


23 


16 


Minnesota 


57 


29 


West Virginia 


105 


1 


Wisconsin 


54 


18 


New York 


167 


40 


Wyoming 


3 


18 


Ohio 


403 


10 


Alaska 


5 




Phillipins la 


38 




Connecticut 


13 




Porto Kico 


41 





I 



-7- 

Kural Superintendents by States and Territories. ( Cont ' d) 




No. of No. of No. of No. of 
States Males Females States Males Females 




Maine 78 3 Rhode Island 15 3 
Massachusetts 65 Vermont 45 3 
New Hampshire 27 Virginia 103 

Total 3, 206 s ?4 


*United States Bureau of Education Bulletin 1913, Number 46. 
'Number changed since the bulletin was printed. 


Length of Term. 
The length of the terms of rural superintendents 
ranges from one to five years with a median and an avorage of 
two years.* 

How Appointed or Elected. 
In twenty-nine states, rural school superintendents 
are elected by popular vote. In eight states they are appointed 
by the local school boards, and in eight other states by the 
county boards of education. In five, they are elected by the 
union boards and in four by the state boards of education. They 
are appointed or elected in one state each by the governor, 
parish, board of education, district board of directors, district 
board of edication and county court. The exceptions to the 
above are found in table 2. 

A. C. Monahan in Supervision of Kural Schools in the United 
States in the Twelfth Year Book, pages 14 and 15. 





-8- 



Table 2* 



Unit of Organ- 
ization for 
Administration 

County 
District' 



Township 

County, di strict 
County- 
County 
District 
ii 

Township 

District' 

District 

County, division' 

Par ish fc 

Township 

County^ 

T o wn ship 

District 
District 
County, district 
District 



Unit of Super- 
vision 



No. of 
Count i es 



Alab ama 
Arizona 
Arkansas 
Cali f ornia 
Colorado 

Connect i cut 

Delaware 

Florida 

G-eorgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Loui siana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 



New Hampshire Township 

New Jersey Township 

New Mexico District 

New York " 

North Carolina County 

North Dakota T'ship district 

Ohio Township 



County 



Township and u ni °» 
district 

County^ 
« 

County 



Parish 7 

Township and union 
district 
County 6 

Township and union 
district 
County 



Supervisory district 



Township and union 
district 
County 
it 

Supervisory district 
County 



Township 



67 
14 

75 
58 
62 

!l68' 

3 
47 

146 
27 

102 
92 
99 

105 

119 



60 7 * 
( 16 
(5 20 

23 
14 
354 

83 
86 
79 

l U 

92 
16 

(234 

21 
26 
57 
100 
49 
( 88 
(1353 



-9- 

Table 2 (Cont'd) 



Unit of Organ- 
ization for Unit of Super- No. of 





Administration 


vision 


Counties 


Oklahoma 


Di strict 


County 


77 


re go n 


H 


H 


34 


P e nn sylvania 


T o wn ship 


o o unxy 


6 6 
o o 


Ii UU uo 1 o a aim 


n 


l u w ll a ii l p o. Li u uin y u 


( 5 < 
(33 






U i o U I'j b 




South Carolina 


County, district 


County 


43 


South Dakota 


Di strict 


« 


65 


T ennessee 


C ounty 


it 


96 


T exas 


District 


«i 


245 


Utah 


District 


County 


27 


Vermont 


Township 


Township and union 


J 14 






District 


(246 


Virginia 


Magisterial 


Division 


100 




district 






Washington 


D istrict 


County 


39 


West Virginia 


Magisterial 


N 


55 




district 






Wisconsin 


District 


County 


71 


Wyoming 


District 


n 


14 



Not es . -Cities and the large towns are independent districts except in 
the New England states and in Delaware, Florida, Louisiana and Marylan ,. 
Data in this table are for the fall of 1912. 
7 City and town superintendents in New England are included as their 

territory includes the entire township, 
^'By district is meant the single district, usually one school and 
the territory it servos; by "county, district, "both the county and 
single district, with the balance of power in the district. 
The union district in New England is composed of two or more 
townships . 

By union board in 5 districts. 
^Number of townships. 
City schools are included in the county systems. 

Composed of the township trustees and one trustee fr<.m each town. 
-The township in 24 instances. 

?The Kentucky county is divided into from 4 to 8 educational div- 
isions; the division holds the balance of power. 
New Orleans Parish excluded. 

Composed of one or more delegates from each township. 
'"'Baltimore City excluded. 
The township in the upper peninsula and in 4 townships in the lower, 
The Nevada supervisory districts contain from 1 to 6 counties. 







-10- 










Table 2 (Cont'd} 








No . o f 


Su- 


. _ 






pervi 


sing Title of Super- 


How Appointed Term in 




Officers vising Officer 


or Elected 


Years 


Ala . 


67 


County Superintendents 


By people 


4 


Ariz . 


14 




n it 


2 


Ark . 


14 


it n 


it it 


(6 


Calif . 


58 


H it 




4 


Colo . 


62 


it n 


ti it 


«■> 
c 


Conn* 


1 A A 

( 44 


City and town superin- 


" local school 






! 


tendents 


board 




a 




f a a 

(43 


Supervisors (for 97 


By state board 








townships ) 


of education 


1 


Del. 


3 


County superintendents 


By governor 


«5 
6 


Fla. 


47 


ti tt 


It r a n n 1 a 

people 


A 
*k 


G-a. 


146 


u n 


" county board 










o f educ ct ion r 


4 


Idaho 


27 


n n 


By people 


A 


111. 


102 


« n 


it ii 


4 


Ind. 


92 


ti n 


M county board 










of education 


4 


I o wa 


99 


it n 


By people 


2 


Kansas 


105 


n ti 


tt w 


2 


Ky. 


;ii9 


it n 


tt It 


4 


( 70 


Supervisors (assistants 










to county superintendents )By county hoard 










of education 




La. 


60 


Parish superintendents 


By parish board 










of education 


4 


Maine 


\ 11 


City superintendents 


By local school 










board 


1 to 5 




313 


Township superintendents 


By local school 










board 


i 




, 74 


Union superintendents 


By union board 


i 






(for 196 townships) 






Md. 


23 


County Superintendents 


By county board 










of education 


n 
6 


Maes. j 


110 


City and town super- 


By local school 








intendents 


board 






79 


Union superintendents 


By union board 


a 

9 






(for 244 townships) 






Mich. 


83 


County school commiss- 










ioners 


By people 


A 
** 


Minn. 


86 


County superintendents 


tt n 


6 


Miss . 


79 


M tt 


n tt 


A 
t 


Mo. 


114 


tt tl 


n n 


4 


Mon. 


29 


It ft 


tt ti 


2 


Neb. 


92 


M tt 


tt tt 


2 


Nev. 


5 


Deputy superintendents 


w state board 








of public instruction 


of education 


4 






(for 16 counties 






B.H. 


12 


City and town superintend 


- By local school 








ent s 


board 


1 




28 


Union superintendents 


By union board 


1 






(for 77 townships 





-11- 



*~TTo7oT~"Sup" 
erviein 
Officers 



Title of Super- 
vising Officer 



How Appointed 
or elected 



T o til in 
Years 



N. J. 21 

N.Mex. 26 
New York 207 



N.Car, 

N.Dak, 
Ohio 



Okla 
Oregon 



Pa, 



P.. I 



S.Car. 
S.Dak. 
Tenn . 
Texas 



Utah 



Wash . 
W. Va. 



Wis . 
Wyom. 



100 

49 

481 

386 

77 
(34 
(24 



66 

(36 

( 

( 1 
43 
61 
96 

(178 

( 

( 60 
28 
(74 

( 

(49 
( 

(90 

39 

155 
(58 



72 
14 



County Superintendents 



District "(for 57 

counties) 
County Superintendents 



City and town superin- 
tendents 
Township superintendent: 

County Superintendents 
n ii 

District supervisors 
(assistants to county 

superint en dents) 
County superintendents 

City and town superin- 
tendents 
Union superintendent 
County superintendents 

n ti 

n it 

n « (for 

185 counties) 
County judgesf ex-of f icio) 
County superintendents 
City and town super- 
int endent s 
Union superintendents 
(for 171 townships) 
Division superintendents 
(10 have 2 counties each) 
County superintendents 
n w 

District supervisors 
(assstants to county 

superint endent s) 
County superintendents 



By state com. of 

education 
By people 

" district board 
of directors 
By county board 

of education 
By people 
By local school 

board 
By local school 
board 

By people 
« n 

By county board 
of education 

By county board 
of education'' 7 

By local school 
board 

By union board 

By people 
n « 

" county court 
■ people 



1 to 3 

1 to 3 
2 
4 



1 
1 

2 to 
2 
2 
2 



By people 

By local board 

By union board 

By state board of 

e due at ion 
By people 
n n 

By district board 
of education 

By people 



The New Yrok Supervisory district is a county or a part of a county 
Philadelphia County excluded. 
'Composed of township school directors. 
The county in five instances. 

Two superintendents have one-half county each. 

Appointed by county board of education in the 5 counties organized 
on the county-unit basis. 
; The magisterial district is from one-fourth to one-eighth of a 
county . 



-12- 

Ninety counties form one division each; 20 counties form 10 
divisions . 

Tennessee has a few counties with the township or district unit. 
' *A.~C. Monahan - The Twelfth Yearbook, pages 14 and 15. 



Qualifications* . 
"Twenty-three of the forty-eight states and terri- 
tories require of county superintendents and examiners special 
educational qualifications, usually a first grade certificate. 
It would naturally be expected that in those states in which 
the county official certificates teachers scholastic qual- 
ifications would be required, but of the seventeen states in 
which this power is exercised five, namely, Colorado, Illinois, 
Maryland, New York and Vermont, make no requirements whatever. 
In California, although the county superintendent may in certain 
cases grant temporary certificates and is a member of the county 
board which examines and grants certificates, no scholastic 
qualifications are required of him by law. In Tennessee he 
is required to possess literary and scientific attainments 
and skill in the practice of teaching. In New Jersey a state 
certificate is required, and it will be remembered that this 
is the state in which county superintendents receive the highest 
compensation. North Dakota requires its superintendents in 
counties in which the salary is one thousand dollars or more to 
hold a state certificate of the first grade or to be a graduate 
of a reputable normal school or higher institution of learning. 
Superintendents in Indiana must have, at the time of their 





-13- 

•lection, a thirty-oix months' state license, a lift license 
or a professional license. In Wisconsin a special county 
superintendent's certificate is provided for. Its require- 
ments are the same as for a first grade county certificate 
and in addition an examination upon school law and the organ- 
ization, management, and supervision of district schools. 
This certificate, together vith eight months' experience in 
teaching in the public schools of Wisconsin, constitutes a 
legal qualification to hold the office of a county super- 
intendent of schools or to teach in any public school in the 
state for which a first grade county certificate is a legal 
qualification. The certificate remains in force until revoked 
by the state superintendent according to law. Five states, 
while requiring no specific educational qualifications on 
the part of the county superintendent, do make some provision 
general in its nature. Florida, for instance, requires only 
that the superintendent be f njfull sympathy with the public 
educational system of the State.* Ten states require 
experience in teaching. The lowest requirement is eight months. 
Several of the states require two years. Thirteen states 
make no provision in regard to the educational qualifications 
for those who are to supervise their rural schools. The 
following table will show the educational qualifications of 
county superintendents or equivalent officials in all the 
states in which such qualifications are required: 



-14- 



Table III.- Showing the Qualifications of County Superinten- 
dents (or equivalent officers) Required in the 
Several States. 



State Qualifications 



Arkansas 1 



Delaware 1 



Florida 1 

Georgia 1 

Idaho.-r 1 

Indiana 1 

Iowa 1, 

Kansas 1, 

Kentucky--------- 1, 



Must have attained the age of 25 years, must 
have taught at least twenty-four months in the 
county within five years preceding his candi- 
dacy, and must hold at the time of his candi- 
dacy, a first grade teacher's license, to be 
approved by the State Superintendent, a pro- 
fessional teach's license, or a state teacher's 
license. 

Must possess good moral character. 2. Must have 
had at least 20 months' experience in teaching. 

3. Must hold certificate of graduation from some 
reputable college or normal school, or an un- 
expired certificate of the highest grade grantee 
to teachers in this State. 4. Must become a 
resident of the county for which he is appointee 
and must reside therein during hie term of office 
To possess good moral character. 2. To be tem- 
perate, upright, responsible, competent, and in 
full sympathy with public educational system of 
the State. 

To be examined by president of county board. 2. 
To stand satisfactory examination, taking into 
consideration moral character and business qual 
i fx at ions . 

To hold first grade certificate. 2. To have 
taught two years in Idaho, one of which while 
holding first grade certificate. 3. To be 25 
years of age. 
To hold at time of election a thirty-six months' 
state license, a life or a professional license. 
To hold first grade certificate, a state cer- 
tificate or a life diploma. 

To hold professional certificate, afirst grade 
certificate or a state certificate or be a grad- 
uate of an accredited college or normal school. 
2, To have taught 18 iLonths. 

To possese good moral character. 2. To possess 
ability to manage common school interest effi- 
ciently. 3. To possess good English education. 

4. To be 24 years of age, 5. To tea citizen of 
Kentucky. 6. To have resided two years next 
preceding election in this State, and one year 
in county for which he is a candidate. 7. To 
hold state diploma or a state certificate or a 
certificate of qualification of grade of first- 
class county certificate. 



-15- 

Table III (Cont'd) 



State 



Qual i f i c y.t ions 



Louisiana 1. To possess high moral character and "be a 

practical educator. 

Michigan 1. To have had 12 months' experience. 2. To be a 

graduate of college, university of state nor- 
mal school, or hold state certificate, or hold 
first grade certificate which only qualifies 
the holder to hold office of commissioner in 
county in which such certificate is granted. 

Mississippi 1. To be 21 years of age. 2. To be a qualified 

elector and a resident citizen of state fcur 
years and of county two years preceding his 
election. 3. To pass an examination on bran- 
ches required for first grade license and in 
addition on the art of teaching. 

Missouri 1. To be 21 years of age. 2. To have resided in 

county at least one yea- prior to election. 
3. To hold first grade county c ert i f i cat , no r- 
mal or State certificate. 

Montana 1. To hold highest grade county certificate. 2. To 

be a citizen of the United States. 3. To have 
resided one year in state and one year in 
county in which he is a candidate. 4. To have 
12 months 1 successful experience in teaching. 

Nebraska 1. To hold first grade certificate in this state 

and in force at time of his election. 

New Jersey — 1. To hold state teacher's certificate. 

new Mexico 1. To possess culture and practical experience 

and learning in those branches of education 
taught in the public schools. 

New York 1. "The law requires that a person chosen to the 

office of district superintendent of schools 
shall possess two distinct educational qual- 
ifications. First, such a person shall hold df 
be entitled to receive a teacher's certificate 
authorizing him to teach in any public school 
in the State. The following certificates come 
with in this requirement: college graduate 
life certificates, college graduate pro- 
fessional certificates, college graduate pro- 
fessional provisional certificates, State 
Normal College diplomas, state normal school 
diplomas, life state certificates. Second, 
in addition to holding one of these certi- 
ficates, a person must also "pass an exam- 
ination prescribed by the Commissioner of 
Education in the supervision of courses of 
study in agriculture and teaching the same."* 



New York Ninth Annual Report 1913, page 73. 



-16- 

Table III (Cont'd) 



Stat© 



Quali f ications 



North Carolina 1 



North Dakota 1 



Oklahoma 1 



Oregon -« 



1 



Pennsylvania 



South Dakota 1 



Tennessee 1. 



Texas 1 



Utah 



1 



Washington 1 



Wisconsin 1 



To be a practical teacher. 2. To have had 
two years' experience in teaching,. 3. To 
be a man of liberal education and to be 
otherwise qualified to discharge the 
duties of his office. 

To be 25 years of age. 2. To hold highest 
grade state certificate or to be a graduate 
of some reputable university, college or 
normal school. 

To hold first grade certificate or be a 
graduate of some institution of learning. 
To have taught in state nine months. 2. To 
hold first grade county certificate, a 
state diploma or a state certificate* 
To possess diploma or state certificate 
from college or state normal school, a 
county certificate issued one year prior t> 
election or a certificate of competency 
from the state superintendent. 2. To have 
had successful experience in teaching with- 
in three years of his election. 
To hold lirst grade certificate or certi- 
ficate of higher grade valid in South 
Dakota. 

To possess literary and scientific attain- 
ments and skill in the theory and practice 
of teaching. 

To hold first grade permanent certificate. 
2. To possess good moral character and 
executive ability. 

To hold certificate not lower than grammar 
grade. 2. To be qualified elector in 
county. 

To have taught nine months. 2. To hold stat 
certificate or life diploma orfirst grade 
common school certificate. 

To have taught in state eight months. 2. To 
.kol A £ P , u ft.*y_.., c ert i f i cate. . 



"The following states have no county superintendents: Connecticut 
Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, Ohio, Rhode Island. 

"The following states provide no qualifications: Alabama, 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, South 
Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia and Wyoming. 

(New York has provided qualifications for district superintend- 
ents since the above was printed.) 



-17- 

"There can bo no doubt that the tendency is towards 
higher standards of qualifications for county superintendents. 
This tendency is manifested in the recommendations of state 
superintendents and legislative committees. The legislative 
committee of the Louisiana School Board Association, for in- 
stance, at a meeting held April 10, 1908, recommended that 
f .eree.fter no person may be appointed to the office of parish 
superintendent of education without first having obtained un- 
der regulations prescribed by the State Board of Education, a 
certificate of eligibility or qualification for that office.' 
The arguments advanced in favor of this recommendation are that 
it is the most important office in the educational system; it 
should be removed as far as possible from political influence 
and should be made a strictly professional position. Such 
recommendations are but the visible signs of a general movement 
in educational thought. 'In a general way , says Pro f • Cubberle y , 
'it may be said that educational opinion has crystallized on the 
idea that the certification of teachers should be in the hands 
of professional teachers instead of laymen, and that a county 
superintendent, or other certificating authority, should be 
possessed of at least the highest grade of certificate which is 
issued by him. This is all very good as far as it goes, but it 
is entirely inadequate to meet the needs of present-day education. 
Such a system brings to the front only the old and successful 
practitioner, while what we need is the man who, in addition to 
successful practice, has secured a broad education and made a 



-18- 



careful study of school admirist rat ion and educational theory 
as well. There is no particular fault to "be found with the 
present body of county superintendents as such. They are 
good enough in their way, and are the best the present system 
can produce. The trouble, however, is with the system. It 
produces the successful practitioner who has learned largely 
by experience and imitation, and not the educational leader who 
works partly in the light of his past experience but largely in 
the light of the best educational theory there is on the subject. 
Too often our superintendents work without any guiding theory 
of consequence, with the result that their educational work is 
traditional work and highly conservative, and their main ser- 
vices clerical rather than supervisory, in any broad educational 
sense of the term. Such work and conditions will not meet the 
needs of the future in a nation where the changes in the condi- 
tions of living, and the consequent modifications of an educa- 
tional system to meet changed conditions, are taking place as 
rapidly as they are with us at present. Everywhere our rural 
schools are calling for leadership and close educational super- 
vision of a new order; but little can be done to answer this 
call until some important changes are made in our methods of 
selecting supervisory officers, and the number of these is 
largely increased. In the judgment of the writer, two funda- 
mental changes ought to be made in our method of selecting men 
for supervisory positions. Both are of fundamental importance. 



-19- 



The first is the erection of a distinctly higher educational 
and professional standard for supervisors; and the second is 
the elimination of the county supe rint endency fr.m politics, 
n.aking it an appointive office, with the selection made 
wholly on the basis of educational ability.'* 

w In the brief description of the development of the 
county superint endency in Illinois it was seen that originally 
the duties of the office were merely those involved in the ad- 
vertisement and sale of public lands and the loaning of money. 
Educational duties were assigned later and somewhat gradually. 
It is not surprising, then, that at the beginning no educational 
requirements for school commissioners were required. The 
duties of the office were such as any man with ordinary ability 
could perform. Hence, the law merely specified that the 
commissioner of schools should be 'some good, competent, and 
responsible person of the county.' When the office became 
an elective one this specification was dropped, and from that 
time on no scholastic qualifications for the county superintend- 
ency have been prescribed in that state by law. That this 
was in some measure due to the gradual assumption of school 
duties by that officer or was at least an oversight ia indi- 
cated by the fact that when the county superintendent was au- 
thorized by law to employ with the approval of the county 

board, such assistant or assistants as he needs for the discharge 
_. . .. . . . 

Fifth year book, National Society for the Scientific Study 
of Education, part 2, pp. 67-3. 



-20- 



of his duties, it was provided that 'such assistants shall be 
persons of good attainments, versed in the principles and 
methods of teaching, familiar with the public school work, and 
competent to visit schools. 1 We thus have the somewhat 
peculiar condition in that state of requiring certain qualifi- 
cations on the part of the county superintendent's assistants, 
while no requirements are demanded of him. 

"Now, the office of county superintendent is a distinctly 
professional one. Since the commissioners of schools were made 
ex-officio superintendent of common schools in his county his 
duties have been to a large extent educational, and consequent- 
ly the office, if not the law, demanded educational qualifica- 
tions. Today the duties of the office are chiefly educational. 
The superintendent is expected to be first of all a leader of 
the educational work of his county. He is a teacher of teachers 
He should, therefore, possess at least the academic qualifications 
of the more advanced teachers of his county. Such qualifica- 
tions are needed not merely to beget confidence and to give 
him standing among those with whom he works, although this is 
important, but also because without them, other qualifications 
being the same, he is greatly handicapped in his work as a 
superintendent. 

"Being a superintendent of the work of teachers, the 
county superintendent should know good teaching when he sees 
it. He will be all the better judge of teaching after he has 
had experience as a teacher. There should, therefore, be 



-21- 



re quired of the county superintendent of schools definite 
scholastic qualifications and also experience in teaching. 

"Finally, the county superintendent is a superintend- 
ent of schools. He is at the head of the school system of his 
county and is the mediating agent between the schools and the 
schocl officers of his county and the educational authorities 
cf the State. He should therefore "be familiar with the school 
system of the State and with the general principles of school 
organization and administration. As he usually has appellate 

jurisdiction in matters of dispute concerning educational aff- 
airs in his county, he should be thoroughly familiar with the 
school law of the State. In a word, he should have the special 
qualifications naturally to be expected of a professional su- 
pervisor of schools. 

"In vies of the peculiar duties attaching to the 
county superint endency he should be required to hold a super- 
visory certificate, the lowest form of which should demand the 
academic preparation necessary to obtain a first grade county 
certification and in additional a knowledge of the school system 
and school law of the State and of school organization and 
administrtration. 

"This should be required not because prescribed qual- 
ifications are absolutely necessary to secure competent school 
superintendents. The experience of many states shows the con- 
trary. A comparatively high standard of qualifications is in 



-22- 

most states enforced by public opinion. But the time has 
come when thi3 standard should be generally recognized and 
expressed in the laws of the states. 

"In seme of the states in which the county super- 
intendent is elected by the people it is supposed by some that 
scholastic qualifications could not legally be prescribed for 
the office of the county superintendent. This is probably an 
eroneous supposition, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and other states elect their county superintendents, 
but at the same time they provide the requirement of certain 
scholastic qualifications. The inference would be that other 
states might do the same. In Illinois, for instance, the 
matter is not left to inference. The constitution of that State 
expressly provides that the qualifications of the county super- 
intendent "shall be prescribed by law".* Fixing the qual- 
ifications of the county superintendent, therefore, is not merely 
something which the General Assembly may do, it is something which 
it is specifically enjoined to do. Up to the present tine, how- 
ever, no standard of qualification hasbeen prescribed. 'The 
right of the people to elect tneir county superintendent of 
schools' , said Bateman, 'should not be abridged, but it seems 
entirely practicable for the Legislature to require the candidate 
to possess certain necessary qualifications for the duties of 
the office, and I respectfully recommend that it be done. ; In 
another place he declared that 'it is a solecism in our school 
system that while no teacher can be employed, or paid, in any 



-23- 



school in the State, under any c i r c urns t itnc e 3 whatever, 
without due examination and licensure; no conditions or qual- 
ifications of any kind or degree are required of the man who 
conducts the examination, and issues, or refuses to issue, 
the license. tie xaay.be the first gentleman and scholar in his 
county, pre-eminently worthy to character and attainments; or 
deplorable lacking in intelligence, scholarship, morality, 
and refinement - it is all the same in the eye of the law, 
under the present arrangement. It is submitted that this is 
neither reasonable nor safe - the wise purpose of the law in 
requiring proof of the fitness and competency of teachers, 
is obviously liable to be negatived and nullified in any county 
at any time. Some evidence of competency and fitness, some 
tangible proof of reasonable qualifications for the office, 
and of capacity to discharge its duties, should be made a 
condition of eligibility to the office of county superintendent 
of schools.-* 



« 

F. G-. Blair, Illinois School Keport, 1903-1910, pages 315-319. 



24- 



Chapter III. 
Need of This Study. 

For s , me time, fifty years perhaps, there has 
seemed to be a great disparity between urban and rural ed- 
ucation. Should it be so and why is it so? It is easy to 
place one's hand upon the city superintendent and his teachers. 
City systems have been compared and rated. Qualifications 
for teachers have been raised again and again. Supervisors 
are provided who give their entire time to supervision. 
These direct the work under them and go about their business 
in a scientific way. On the other hand, it is believed that 
most of the states have raised their qualifications for rural 
teachers and supervisors very little. According to the last 
census there are almost twice as many children enrolled in 
the rural as in the urban districts. Because of this, rural 
education should be as important as urban. One proof of the 
efficiency of a school is in the literacy of the people. 
According to the educational Bulletin, 1913, Ho. 20, 5.1 per 
cent of the urban population were illiterate and 10.1 per 
cent of the rural; this, too, in spite of all the foreign po p- 
ulation of the city. The attendance of the urban school is 
better and the term longer by 46.4 days each year than the 
rural. A country child received only 65 per cent of the 
schooling in days that the city child doe3. With the excep- 
tion of mathematics, perhaps, most urban children are better 
prepared for the high school and the high school pupils for 



-25- 



college than are the rural children. How about preparatio 

for life? These country children are not prepared for the 
life in which they are born or why should there be the 
great migration to the city? 

It is with these facts and theories in mind, to- 
gether with the idea that the country child is entitled to 
as good an education as is the city child that thi3 study was 
undertaken. It is an attempt to diagnose the case first in 
order to apply the remedy later. Because first hand infor- 
mation has more value than hearsay, these questionnaires 
were sent to the rural superintendents themselves. 

This study was made of the superintendents instead 
of the teachers, because it is now generally conceded that, 
"As is the supervisor, so is the school." The old theory, 
"As is the teacher, so is the school," holds good in isolated 
and independent districts, but not in systems composed of 
many schools and districts. 

Manner of Obtaining the Information. 
Nine hundred and ninety-three questionnaires were 
sent to the superintendents of the forty-six states. None 
were sent to the Massachusetts or Connecticut. One was sent 
to each of the superintendents of Illinois, Delaware, and 
Nevada. To each of the other states having a large unit of 
supervision than a township one questionnaire was sent to 
every fifth superintendent , taking their counties in alphabet 
ical order from the directory published in the United States 



-26- 



Bureau Bulletin 1912, number 20. To the township superin- 
tendents, about one to every ten was 3ent. The lists of 
the latter were taken from the directories sent by the 
state superintendents of those states. Because of the snail 
number of superintendents in Delaware and Nevada, one was 
sent to each, and because it was at first thought to limit 
our investigation to Illinois, one questionnaire was sent to 
each of the county superintendents of this State. 

Of the number sent, 353 or 35 1/2 per cent were 
returned. Twenty-eight were from states having township 
supervision and 325 were from those having larger units of 
supervision. These replies represent 9 1/3 per cent of the 
total supervisory force to whom blanks were sent. 









97 
















Table 4. 













Qu e « 


tionnaires returned. 








State 


No. of 
replies 




State 


No . of 
replies 


State 


N o • of 
replies 


Alabama 


3 




Maine 


9 


Oklahoma 




4 


Arizona 


1 




Maryland 


3 


Oregon 




2 


Arkansas 


6 




Michigan 


9 


Pennsylvania 




7 


California 


7 




Minnesota 


12 


S. Carolina 




1 


Colorado 


6 




Mississippi 


5 


S. Dakota 




9 


Delaware 


1 




Mis souri 


11 


Tennessee 




7 


Florida 


3 




Montana 


3 


Texas 




19 


Georgia 


12 




Nebraska 


11 


Utah 




3 


Idaho 


5 




Nevada 


2 


Vermont 




4 


Illinois 


54 




New Hampshire 


4 


Virg inia 




7 


Indiana 


9 




Hew Jersey 


5 


Washington 




5 


Iowa 


12 




New York 


24 


W. Virginia 







Kansas 


10 




North Carolina 1 2 


Wisconsin 




Q 


Kentucky 


7 




North Dakota 


6 


Wyoming 




1 


Loui s iana 







Ohio 


11 








Total number of questionnaires received 


, 353. 















Probable Errors. 








The 


number of 


rural superintendents who 


returned the 






questionnaires should 


be 


fairly repres 


ent at i ve 


of all, but 






the chance 


8 are that 


replies were received froa 


the most 






ambitious 


and interested 


ones . 










A few of the questions were not 


clear to 


all, e.g. many 




failed to 


note "each 


" in 


question "29 


n , and others confused 


th 


e 



idea of "condition" and "reports" in "30". I considered M 35 M 
one of the most important but many failed to make the answer 
definite. In most cases where the answers wers indefinite as 
from "1 to 3", I took the "1" unless otherwise explained in 
the tables. Allowances should be made also because of the 
nature of the information sought. It is impossible for any 
one to keep all of this in "one's head" as one superintendent 
said. There may be some inaccuracies, but perhaps from the 
large number of cases these may be balanced. At any rate a 
fair idea may be gained of the composition qualifications, and 
work of our rural superintendents of schools. 

QUESTIONNAIRE. 

1. You are a county superintendent in what state? 

2. Male of female? 

3. Your age at nearest birthday? 

4. Your annual salary as superintendent? 

5. Were you born in the United States? 

a . In the state in which you now reside? 

b. In the county where you now live? ■ 1 

c. If born outside of the county state the number of years 
lived in it before you were elected county sup; r- 

int endent ■ 

6. What language was spoken in your father's home? — 

7. a. In what country wa3 your father born? 

b. Your mother? — 

8. What was your father's occupation when you began to teach? 



-29- 



9. How many brothers and sisters, including yourself, were there 
in your family? 

10. Were you married at the time of election? If married, is your 

wife or husband a high school, normal school, or college 
graduat e? 

11. Number of years you attended school before election as 

county superintendent? 

a. High school? 

b. Normal school? ■ 

c. College or university? 

a^ . Major subject in college or university? 

b* . Degree you hold ? — . 

12. What grade certificate did you hold at the time of your 

election? «.-■ • . 

13. What grade do you hold at present? < 

1 4 . Amount of schooling you have had since your election as county 

superint endent, st at ed in approximate number of weeks?- 

a. Normal school?---- ------- 

b. College or university? ■ 

c. Extension courses? 

15. Do you make a practice of attending conventions or assoc- 

iations other than those held in your own county? -< 

b. Sectional? ■ 

c. State? 

d. National? 

16. Your experience in teaching, including the present year: 



-30- 



Country school 

Village of town school grades . 
Department teacher in grades — 

Village or town Principal 

Ward principal 

High school teacher , — 

High school principal 

Supervisor of special subjects. 
Assistant city Superintendent-- 

City superintendent --. 

Academy teacher- 

Academy principal- 

Normal school teacher 

College or university teacher - 
County superintendent --« 



Years 

Taught 



Lowe at 

Annual 
.Salary^ 



Highest 
Annual 

.Salary 



17. What business or profession were you engaged in before election 

to county superint endency ?- - -■ 

a. How many years engaged in it? • 

18. How many schools under your supervision are 

a. City schools? • ■ -< 

b. Town or village?- --• ■ ■ 

c . District one-room schools?--- ---- 

d. District two-room schools? 

e. Township high schools? -< 

f. Consolidated district schools? — . 



-31- 



19. How many teachers do you supervise? 

20. Number of visits you make to each teacher each year? 

21. Approximate amount of time spent with each teacher at each 

visit ? 

22. Number of teachers you visited last year more than once?-- 
More than twice? 

23. Number of county institutes held each year? 

a . Length of each? 

b. Average attendance? ■ 

24. Number of township institutes of teachers' meetings held 

each year? • > ■ ■ 

a. Length of each?--- ~ - 

b. Attendance? - 

c. Nature of work done in them? 

25. How many other teachers' meetings held each year? 

a. Their nature or purpose?---- - 



26. What percentage of your teacherB do the Beading Circle work? 

a. What recognition is given for the work?--- 

27. Do you send circulars to your teachers as a means of improving 

their work? . ■ 

a. How many per year? - ■ 

b. If possible attach some of them to this report. 

23. What other means do you use for the improvement of your teacher? 
during service? - 



-32- 



29. How many public teachers' exaiuinat ions do you hold each year?-- 

Approximate number who take each examination? 

Approximate number who receive certificates at each exam- 
ination? • . 

a. Number of certificates renewed annually without exam- 
inations? 

b. Number given on college degrees? 

c. Number given on normal diplomas?------------------- 

d. Upcr. what condition do you renew certificates without 
examination? 



30. How often do you require written reports of your teachers 

concerning: 

a. Attendance of pupils?- . 

b. Age of pupils? 

c. Grades of pupils in various subjects?--* — 

d . Individual peculiarities and causes?- 

e. Textbooks used? 

f. Reference books on file? 

g. Apparatus?--- 

h. Daily program?--- ■ 

i. Condition of buildings and grounds? 

j. Other items? ■ 

If you have a blank form to be used by teachers in making this 
report, will you please attach it to this statement? 

31. What use is made of these reports? 



-33- 



32. Do you have a form to aid you in judging teachers when you 
vi visit their class rooms? If you have such a forra or 

standards please enclose copies of them or make a statement 
of the items that you give primary consideration to 

33. Number of patrons' or parents' meetings or clubs for purposes 

of improving schools you hold each year?- 

34. Number of circulars or other printed articles you send to 

school patrons to interest them in the schools and to gain 
their cooperation? 

35. a. How many days of hours per year do you spend in 

actual supervision of schools? 

b. How many days of hours per year do you spend in 

clerical work, such as making reports to superior officers, 
keeping account of school money, etc?--- ■■ — 

36. how many assistants have you? — 

a. Number engaged in office work, typewriting, bookkeeping, 
etc? - 

b. Number engaged in actual supervision? 

c. What subjects or schools do they supervise? — 

d. How much time do they spend in school? ■ 

37. Underscore any of the following that you have emphasized in the 

schools in your county. Also note the year that you 
emphasized each: 

Manual training Play grounds 

Domestic Science Follwoing state courses of stud 

Vocational training Teaching of morals 

Agriculture Physical training 

School gardening Sex Hygiene 

School decoration Mediai.1 Inspection 

Athletics Eighth grade commencements 



-34- 



Flexible grading 
Midyear promotions 
School discipline 
Kus ic 
Drawing 



Oral Composition 

Use of English Language 

Oratoricals 

Public self-government 
deduction of amount of 
homework of pupils. 



Add anything not listed. Send material 
showing your plan and success. 



38. Underscore the following handicaps which have seriously 

impaired the efficiency of your supervision: 

Lack of clerical help Lack of cooperation of school 
Low taxes officers 

Too many schools to super- Disinterestedness of school patrons 

vise. Politics 

Untrained teachers, in- 
efficient teachers. Add other causes that should be 

listed. 



39. Underscore things that will in your opinion add most to the 

improvement of the schools in your county?- 

Closer supervision, that is, fewer schools and fewer teachers 
for one superintendent to supervise 

Higher qualifications of teachers Cooperation of patrons 

Higher wages of teachers and teachers 

Better school buildings and Using school as a social 

apparatus center 

Cooperation of teachers Longer school term. 



Add other things you think important 



-35- 

Chapter ivi 

Composition of the Kural Supervisory Force. 
Se x. 

Of the replies received, 291 or 82.4 per cent were 
froia men and sixty-two or 17.5 per cent from women. 

Age. 

Their ages ranged from twenty-four to seventy-six 
years. The average was a little over forty years with a me- 
dian of thirty-nine. That is, as many were over thirty-nine 
as were below it. The two largest groups, twenty-two in 
each, were thirty- seven and thirty-eignt years of age. Eleven 
were less than twenty-seven and twelve were beyond sixty. 

Table 5. 

Distribution of Kural Superintendents with 
Reference to Age. 



Age 


Fre- 
quen- 
cy 


Age 


"Fre- 
quen- 
cy 


Age 


"Fre- 
quen- 
cy 


24 


2 


31 


5 


38 


22 


25 


3 


32 


15 


39 


13 


26 


3 


33 


19 


40 


18 


27 


3 


34 


12 


41 


11 


28 


10 


35 


12 


42 


12 


29 


7 


36 


18 


43 


15 


30 


11 
Number 


37 

report 


22 


44 


14 _ 



Age 

45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 



•Fre- 
quen- 
cy 

13 

8 
10 
7 
3 
8 



Median age 
Average — 



.U JL 

.- 247 
■ - 39 
.- 40 



Age 

52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 



Tre~ 

quen> 

cy 

4 

2 



-36- 



Ago 
59 

60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 



Frequency 
2 

2 
1 

2 



Age 

66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
76 



Frequency 



Nativity 

In regard to nativity, 341 were born in the United 
States, 237 in the state and 146 in the county in which they 
now reside. Of those born outside the county, the length 
of residence within it ranges from seven, who have lived less 
than a year, to one, who has lived sixty-two years within it. 
The average time of residence within the county of those not 
born there, is 13.9 years, and as many have lived ten years 
or more as have lived less than that time within the county. 

The largest number of superintendents have lived 
three years in their present county before election. 



-37- 



Table 6. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to 







Numb e r 


o f 


year 8 


of Residence in Pres 


ent County 


wh en 










not born 


therein 








Yrs 


Fre- 


Yrs. 




Fre- 


Yrs . 


Fre- 


Yrs . 


r i o — 


Yra 




quency 


quency 




quency 




quency 







7 


10 




11 




20 


11 


30 


5 


40 


1 


7 


11 




X 


21 


3 


31 


3 


41 


2 


10 


12 




2 


22 


5 


32 


2 


42 


3 


14 


13 




2 


23 




33 


5 


43 


4 


9 


14 




4 


d 4 


2 


34 


1 


44 


5 


12 


15 




7 


■5 K 
& 


6 


35 


1 


45 


6 


10 


16 




5 


26 


4 


36 


3 


62 


7 


7 


17 




2 


27 


2 


37 






Q 

o 


11 


18 




4 


28 


3 


38 


1 




9 


5 


19 




3 


29 




39 


1 






Number 


repo rti ng 








196 








Median 


numbe r 


of 


years 






10 








Average 


numb e r 


of 


years 






13.9 







Native Language* 
Three hundred fifty one superintendents answered the 
question in regard to the language spoken in the father's home. 
English was spoken in 331 families. In five of these, however, 
German was also spoken, and in one each Norwegian, Danish, and 
French. Ten families spoke German; eignt spoke Norwegian; one 
Swiss, and one Swedish, L'nglisn was spoken in 94.3 per cent of 
tne families and not spoken in 5.6 per cent of them. 



-38- 



Table 7. 

Language Spoken in Father's Home 



Language No. fami- Language No.fami- 
. lies lies. 



English 323 English and German 5 

German 10 " " Norwegian 1 

Norwegian 8 " " Danish 1 

Swiss 1 n n F ren ch 1 

Swedish 1 



Nativity of Parents. 
Both parents of 288 of our rural superintendents were 
born in the United States, both of thirty-seven were of mixed 
parentage. Stating this in per cents, 82+ were of native, 
10.2 of foreign, and 7.7 of mixed parentage. According to the 
census of 1910, 67 per cent of our population is of native, 
twenty-five per cent of foreign, and eight per cent of mixed 
parentage. Thus the 67 + per cent of our native parents are 
furnishing 82+ per cent of our rural supervisors and the 
twenty-five per cent of foreign parents are furnishing only 
10.2 per cent of them. There is little difference with the 
mixed proportions. 



-39- 



Table 8. 

Mat ivit. y._P. j. .Par. .**-*^ 6 . by Countries. 

Country Number Country Number 

United States 288 Mother native, 

Norway 7 Father from: 

England 5 Germany 7 

Ireland 5 Norway 1 

Scotland 2 England 5 

Canada 2 Wales 1 

Switzerland 2 Ireland 2 

Germany 3 Canada 2 

Kussia 1 

Sweden 1 Father from: Mother from: 

Denmark 1 Scotland Ireland 1 

Ireland Scotland 1 

Fatner native, Germany Scotland 1 

Mother from Germany France l 

Canada 4 England Germany 1 

Australia 1 Canada England 1 

Ireland 2 Canada Ireland 1 

Scotland 1 
Germany 1 

Table 9. 

Foreign or Native Parentage. 

Native ------- --------- 288 or 32% 

Foreign - -------------------- 36 or 10.2% 

Father native, mother foreign- ---------- 9) 

) or 7.7% 

Mother native, father foreign- ---------- 18) 

Total reporting ---------------- 351 



40- 



Occupation of Fathers. 

Of the 351 replies received concerning the occupa- 
tions of the fathers, 222 had been farmers at the time when 
the superintendent had begun to teach. Forty-five of the 
fathers were dead. Only four had been teachers or superin- 
tendents of schools. Twenty-seven were childred of profess- 
ional and thirty-one of business men. It is hard to draw any 
conclusion in regard to this. V/ere these people teachers 
because the farmers had more means to educate their children 
or was it because the fathers had so little that their child- 
ren were compelled to seek an early occupation and chose 
teaching because it was the most accessible occupation? 

Table 10. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to the Occupation of their Fathers at the time 
when they began teaching. 



T Occup_a t ion s _ N umb er Per cent 

Farmer 222 63.2 

Professional 27 7.6 

Business 31 8.8 

Artisan 16 4.5 

Laborer 5 1.4 

Retired 5 1.4 

Dead 45 12.8 



Number reporting ------- 351. 



-41 



Size of Parental Family. 



In the distribution of superintendents with ref- 



erence to the size of their parental families, the number 
from homes of large families is noticeable. From the 352 
reporting, 57.3 per cent came from families of six ^.nd ovor, 
thus leaving only 42.6 per cent for tnose from families of 
from one to five. The average and the median numbers were 
six children. 



Distribution of the Parental Families of Kural Superintendents 

with Reference to the Total Number of Children in 
each Family. 



Table 11. 



Number of children 
in each family 



Frequency 



Perc entags 
of 

Frequency 



1 

2 
3 
4 



13 
30 
23 
38 
46 



42. 6 



5 



6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
12 
14 
16 
30 
24 




52 
40 
36 



1 



57.3 



Number reported 



352 



Median number of children 



6 



Average number of children 



6 



-42- 



Marital Helation. 

Throe hundred thirty-seven county superintendents 
replied to the question with regard to their marital relation. 
Of this number 210 or 62.3- per cent were married at the time 
of their election and 127 or 37.6 per cent were unmarried. 
Of the latter number six were widows. Only seven of the 
sixty-two women had been married at the time of their election; 
206 of the 210 married superintendents replied as to the 
graduation of their husbands or wives from a secondary school; 
103 or 50 per cent were graduates. Of this number 56 or 27.1 
per cent were high school, 15 or 7.2 per cent were normal 
school, and 21 or 10.1 per cent were college graduates. Sev- 
eral superintendents mentioned that their wives had attended 
secondary schools but were not graduates. 

Table 12. 

Distribution of tfurai Superintendents with Reference 
to their Marital Relations at the Time of their 
, ; Election. . 

Marital st ate Number Per_c_ent 

Married 

Unmarried 

Number reported 



210 62.3 
127 37.6 

337 . 



-43- 



Table 13 



Distribution of Kural Superintendents with Reference 
to the Graduation of their Wives or Husbands 
from a School beyond the elementary 
Grades . 

School Number Per cent of 

Wives or Husbands 



High school 56 27.1 

Normal school 15 7.2 

College 21 10.1 

Business college 2 

Music Conservatory 1 1.9 

Girls' school 1 

No name given 7 3.4 

No. of married men and women reported ----- 206 

No. of husbands or wives who were graduates - - 103 



-44- 



Chapter V. 

Qualification of Rural Superintendents. 
Scholarship . 

The number of superintendents who reported concerning 
their secondary school attendance were 333. Fifteen designated 
no school beyond the elementary grades, and seven had attended 
a secondary school, but gave no time of attendance. The 
remainder had attended from a few weeks to seventeen years. 
The average and median numbers of years of attendance were 
between five and six, and six and seven respectively. The 
time and the number attending high school given in this section 
may not be exact because of the lack of definiteness of a few 
answers, e.g., one had a doctor's degree and did not state 
the number of years of attendance either in high school or 
college. In this case eleven years were counted although it 
might have been more or less. Several others had college 
degrees or named a definite number of years attendance in 
college yet failed to give any high school attendance. In 
these instances four years were counted for high school if the 
college attendance seemed long enough to indicate that they 
had matriculated. Where total years of attendance were given 
and secondary attendance indicated but no time, all over 
eight years were counted as secondary attendance, but even 
when fifteen or twenty years were given as total attendance 
and no attendance indicated for secondary schools, none was 
counted for tnem. Twenty-nine or 8.8 per cent of the total 



-45- 



number of superintendents had attended high school only; 67 
or 20 per cent attended both high school and normal school; 
93 or 27.6 per cent attended high school and college; 65 or 
19.4 per cent attended all three secondary schools; 34 or 10.1 
per cent attended normal school only; 21 or 6.2 per cent 
attended normal school and college and 25 or 7.5 per cent 
attended college only. In interpreting the returns, academy 
attendance was counted as high school, and college attendance 
includes university attendance. The average number of yoars 
of high school attendance was between three and four, and the 
median was between four and five. Two hundred fifty kad attended 
high school, 181 had attended normal school, and 192 had attended 
college. These gave the time of attendance, but a few more, 
not includedj said that they had attended secondary schools but 
failed to state the time. Ihe latter are included in Table 15, 
The normal school attendance ranged from a few weeks to six 
years with an average and median of between two and three years. 
For college, the attendance ranged from a few weeks to eight 
years with a median and average of from three to four years. 

There were 181 major subjects chosen by 140 super- 
intendents. Only 25, however, dealt with their future pro- 
fession directly in the supervision of schools* Only one had 
direct reference to rural supervision. But this is not so 
strange when one things of the method of election and the rare 
chances of becoming a county superintendent. Twenty-five chose 
the classics as majors. This with the mathematics chosen by 



-4 6- 



30 would very likely bo the least useful of the subjects in 
rural supervision. From the subjects chosen it ia evident 
that many of these people had no idea of ever becoming rural 
supervisors • 

Thirteen different kinds of college and normal school 
degrees are held by 129 superintendents. The largest number 
is bachelors of arts, with bachelors of science and masters of 
art next. Three hold doctor's degrees. Fourteen hold two 
degrees. Summing up, thirty six per cent of the rural super- 
visors hold college or normal degrees. 



-47- 




Table 14. 




Distribution of Rural Superi ntendents with 
their Years of Attendance in Secondary 


Keference to 
Schools. 


Years of Frequency Years of Frequency 
Attendance Attendance 


0-1 6 7-8 


37 


1-2 15 8-9 


48 


2-3 21 9-10 


14 


3-4 20 10-11 


8 


4-5 62 11-14 


6 


5-6 33 14-17 


1 


6-7 51 17-18 


1 


The number that reported definitely enough to estimate the 

years was 331. 
Median number of years, from 6 to 7. 
Average number of years, from 5 to 6. 


Table 15. 




Distribution of Kural Superintendents with 
to the Secondary School Attended. 


Reference 


School Requency 


Per Cent . 


High school only 29 


8.6 


High school and normal school 67 


20.0 


High school and college 93 


27.6 


High school, normal school and college 65 


19.4 


Normal school only 34 


10.1 


jjormal school and college 21 


6.2 


College only 25 


7.5 





-48- 



Table 16. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Years of High School Attendance. 



Years of Frequency Years of Frequency 

Attendance Attendance 

0- 1 2 4-5 117 

1- 2 22 5-6 14 

2- 3 36 6-7 1 

3- 4 58 

Number reporting ----------- 250 



Average high school attendance in years, 3-4 
Median high school attendance in years ,4-5 
Where graduation was given this was counted as four year. 



Table 17. 



Distribution of Bural Superintendents with Reference 
to Years of Normal School Attendance. 



Years of Frequency Years of Frequency 

Attendance Attendance 

0-1 25 3-4 27 

1 - 2 39 4 - 5 31 

2-3 58 5-6 1 

Number attending Normal school -------- 181 

Median years of attendance ----------2-3 

Average years of attendance ---------2-3 



-49- 



Table 18. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to College Attendance. 

Years of Frequency Years of Frequency- 

Attendance Attendance 

0- 1 18 5-6 13 

1- 2 29 6-7 4 

2- 3 35 7-8 4 

3- 4 16 8 1 
4 - 5 J72 

Number of superintendents reporting ------- 192 

Median number of years ---------- ----3-4 

Average number of years -------------3-4 



Table 19. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Major Subjects in College. 



Major Subjects 



Frequency 



Language 

English 30 

Modern 1 

Classics 25 

Education 13 

Pedagogy 6 

Psychology 3 

Teachers course 1 

School administration 1 

Rural administration 1 



Major Subject 
Law 

Social Science 

Natural Science 

Vocational 

Mu 8 i c 

Medi c ine 

Mat he mat ic s 



Frequency 

5 
30 
26 

7 

1 

1 
30 



-50- 

Table 19 (Cont'd) 

Number of major subjects ------------ 181 

Number of superintendents having two majors -- - 31 

Number of superintendents having three majors- - 5 

Number of superintendents having major subjects- 140 

Table 20 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 



to Degrees which they hold. 

Degrees Frequency Degrees Frequency 

A. B. 58 L.I. 4 

B. S. 26 Ph.g. 1 
B.L. 6 A.M. 26 
B.Di. 5 M.Pd. 1 
B.Pd. 10 M.S. 1 
Ph.B. 8 Ph.D. 3 
LL.B. 4 

Number of degrees held --------- 154 

Number of persons holding two degrees --------14 

h ii it »' three" --------4 

n n n four " ------- - 1 

" M " " Coll. & Normal degrees- - - - - -129 

" » ii « Normal degrees ------ 10 



Thirty-six per cent of the 353 rural superintend ents hold 
college and normal school degrees. 

Certification. 
Because of the indef init eness of the question the 
answer with regard to certification is likely to be inaccurate. 



-51- 



Forty-three different kinds of certificates were given. 
These were classed into five groups. This classification 
may be far from correct. When "first gru.de" was given without 
a qualifying term, it was classed as a county certificate. 
Special, high school, grammar school, and life were classed 
as state certificates. The large number of certificates 
other than county is gratifying as well as surprising. Only 
two held sec:.nd grade county certificates. Of those reporting, 
42.2 per cent held county and 43.9 per cent held state certi- 
ficates. 

Table 21. 

Distribution of Kural Superintendents with Keference 
to Certification at Time of Election. 

Certificate Frequency 
County 
State 

Normal diploma 
College diploma 
Superintendent 

Number reporting kind of certificates ----- 343 

Schooling Since Election. 
Comparatively few of the rural superintendents have 
attended school since tneir election and those who have 
attended have gone only a few weeks. Only twelve have at- 
tended 36 weeks or more. 108 or 30.6 per cent of the different 



149 
155 

23 
13 
3 



-52- 

auperintendents attended school or took extension courses. 
The average number of weoks attendance at normal schools was 
16 , at colleges 19-, and for extension courses 21, while 
the nedian number of weeks for each, respectively, was six 
to twelve, six to twelve, and twelve to eighteen. 

Table 22. 

Distribution of Kurai Superintendents with Reference 
to Attendance at School since Election, 



Course Number 

Normal 39 

College 33 

Extension 34 

No designation other 

than attendance 14 

Total 12 5 



Total number who have taken courses - - - - 108. 



53 



Weeks 



Table 23 



Distribution of Kural Superintendents with Keferonce 
£&_*uaberjjf ,Weeks_o f _Wo rk_sinc e ^£le c t ion^ 



Nornal Course 
Frequency 



College Course 



Extension Cour 



1 


- 


6 


7 


6 


3 


6 


- 


12 


10 


13 


7 


12 


- 


18 


3 


6 


3 


18 


- 


24 


4 


1 


2 


24 


- 


30 


3 


2 


4 


30 


- 


36 


2 




1 


36 


■ 


42 




2 


2 






A Q 

48 




1 




48 




54 




1 




54 




60 


1 






60 




66 


1 






66 




72 




1 


1 


72 




80 






1 


80 




130 




1 





Median 
Average 



For Normal Course 

6-12 weeks 
16 » 



For college 
Course 

6-12 weeks 
19 x h 



For Extension 
Course 

12 - 18 weeks 

21 " 



Attendance at Teachers' Conventions and 
Assoc iat ions . 

Over half of the rural superintendents attend sectional and 

state conventions or association. Eighty-three of the 

number or 23 per cent attend the sectional, state and national 
associations • 



54- 



Tab la 24. 

Distribution of hural Superintendents with Reference 
to their Attendance at Teachers' Conventions 
or Associations other than County In- 
stitutes. 



Association 



Number Attending 



Sectional only 6 

State only 32 

National (N.JS.A.) only 

Sectional and State 191 

Sectional and National 2 

State and National 17 
Sectional, State, and National 83 

None 10 

No answer 12 



Per cent. 



1 
9 

54 

4 

23 
2 



Number reported 



341. 



Experience in Teaching Including the Present 
Year of Superint endency . 
It seems somewhat remarkable that at least 84.9 per 
cent of the 353 rural superintendents should have commenced 
their teaching in country schools proper. This experience 
should be very valuable in their present work. Seventy-two 
per cent of the total number may have had work other than in 
country or village schools if the high schools and academies 
in which they taught were city schools; if they were not, only 
25 per cent have had this broader experience. Seven had taught 
in a college, fourteen in a normal school and thirty- seven had 



-55- 



been city superintendent a . There were eleven who gave no 
clew to having ever taught. Some of the latter were ex- 
officio superintendents who had been and are now engaged in 
other business. 

The number of years taught in a country school ranged 
from a few months to 25 years with a median of between four 
and five and an average of between five and six ye^ra. The 
experience of teaching and super int endenc y combined ranged 
from a few months to 44 years with the median falling between 
16 and 17 years and the average falling between 17 and 19 
years. The tenure extends from a few days to 31 years. The 
medial was a fraction over four years and the average about 
the same. The number that reported and gave their terms was 
304. There nay be some error in calculating the number 
teaching different schools, e.g., one might teach 4 years in a 
village school and yet it is a country school and thus have 
eight years credit given him when he should have o nly four 
years . 





-56- 








Table 


25. 






Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Ha 
to total years of Experience including 
Teaching and Superintndency . 


f erenc e 


Years 



Fre- Years Fre- 
quency quency 


Years Fre- Years 
quency 


Fre- 
quency 


0-1 


3 12 15 


23 10 34 


3 


2 


13 20 


24 6 35 


3 


3 


14 19 


25 9 36 


2 


4 


4 15 17 


26 6 37 




5 


4 16 20 


27 3 38 


1 


6 


7 17 17 


28 3 39 


2 


7 


12 18 9 


2 9 4 40 


2 


8 


10 19 4 


30 5 41 


1 


9 


12 20 13 


31 6 42-45 


3 


10 


16 21 10 


32 1 




11 


12 22 10 


33 6 




Number reporting number of 






Median number of years - - 






Average number of years 


17 + 





-57- 



Table 26. 

Distribution with Keference to Years of Su pe ri nt endency 
Alone . 

Years Fre- Years Fre- Years Fre- Years Fre- Years Fre- 
quency quency quency quency qucncy 



1 


16 


6 


18 


12 


6 


18 


2 


24 




1 


20 


7 


28 


13 


4 


19 




25 




2 


42 


8 


26 


14 


1 


20 


1 


27 


1 


3 


65 


9 


8 


15 


1 


21 




31 


1 


4 


18 


10 


9 


16 


1 


22 








5 


25 


11 


9 


17 


2 


23 










Number 
Median 
Average 


reporting 
t e nr. - - 






- 304 
3 


years 
years 









Table 27. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with reference 
to Kinds of Schools Taught. 



Schools 


Number 


Per cent of 






the 353 


Country 


300 


84. 9 


Village of town grades 


111 


31.4 


Department teacher in grades 


101 


28.6 


Village of town principal 


154 


43.6 


Ward principal 


25 


7 .1 


High school teacher 


59 


16.7 


High school principal 


75 


21.2 


Supervisor of special subjects 


4 


1.1 


Assistant city superintendent 


5 


1.4 


City superintendent 


37 


10.4 


Academy teacher 


14 


3.9 


Academy principal 


7 


1.9 


Wormal school teacher 


14 


3.9 


College or university teacher 


7 


1.9 


Number who never taught or who failed to ] 






indicate in any way that they had taught. 1 


11 





-58- 

Table 28. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to 
Years Taught in a Country School. 



Years 



Fre- 
quency 


Years 




Fre- 
quency 


Years 




Fre- 
que n c y 


Years 




Fre- 
quency 


Years Fre- 
quency 


-1 


7 


6 


22 


12 


8 


18 


2 


24 1 


1 


23 


7 


13 


13 


5 


19 


2 


25 1 


2 


43 


8 


18 


14 


4 


20 


7 


26 


3 


35 


9 


2 


15 


6 


21 






4 


39 


10 


13 


16 


1 


22 






% 5 


26 


11 


5 


17 


1 


23 


1 




No. 


reporti ng 


number 






- 300 







Median number of years taught ------- 4+ 

Average number of years taught ------- 5+ 

Occupation Immediately Preceding Election. 
Three hundred thirty nine answered this question. 
Two hundred eighty five had been engaged as a teacher or in- 
structor. Ten had combined teaching with some other business. 
Forty-four had been engaged in other occupations than teach- 
ing - the largest number of which were farmers. Expressing 
this in terms of per cents: 84t per cent had taught imme- 
diately preceding election or appointment to the superintend- 
ency. Add to this the 2.9 per cent who had combined other 
occupations to teaching gives us 87 per cent of the 339 who 
reported. Only 278 gave the number of years in which they 
were engaged in teaching immediately preceding their election. 
The average number of years which these taught was between 
twelve and thirteen. Five had taught less than three years 



-59- 

and four had taught from thirty-five to forty-three years. 
Three of the farmers had been engaged in that occupation for 
twenty years. 

Table 29. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Refer nee 
to Occupation preceding their Election. 

Occupation Frequency Occupation Frequency 



Teacher orl 
Instructor j 


225 


Farmer 


9 


Lawyer 


4 


Minister 


5 


Merchant 


5 


Housekeeper 


4 


Postal service 


2 


Physician 


2 


Cont racto r 


1 


Surveyor 


2 


Meteorologist 


1 


Bookkeeper 




Insurance 


1 


Electrical Engineer 




Student 


1 


Mechanizer 




Kailroader 


1 


Town Clerk 




Farmer and| 
Salesman ] 


1 


Mail service and j 
T eacher 




Farmer and) 
Lawyer ) 


1 


Undertaker and 1 
Teacher 

Farmer and j . 
Teacher 


8 



Number reporting occupations, 339. 



-60- 



Table 30. 

Distribution of Hural Superintendents with heferance to 
Number of Years Experience in Teaching 
Immediately Preceding Election. 

Fre- Fre- Fre- Fre- 

Yea-rs quency Years quency Years quency Years quency 

1- 2 2 10-11 21 19-20 2 28-28 2 

2- 3 3 11-12 18 20-21 12 29-30 2 

3- 4 4 12-13 25 21-22 2 30-32 3 

4- 5 8 13-14 14 22-23 4 32-33 3 

5- 6 9 14-15 13 23-24 6 33-35 3 

6- 7 9 15-16 14 24-25 2 35-36 1 

7- 8 20 16-17 11 25-26 6 36-39 1 

8- 9 20 17-18 4 26-27 3 39-43 1 

9- 10 15 18-19 9 27-28 5 43 1 

Number reporting experience in teaching -------- 278 

Median number of years -------- -------- 12-13 

Average number of years ---------------- 12-13 



-61- 



Chapter VI. 

Salary When Teaching. 
Although the lowest and highest "annual" salary 
was asked for in question "16", so many gave monthly salaries 
with no number of months taught per year, that it was impossible 
to estimate fairly the returns to this question. I might say, 
however, that at least fifty-four began teaching with a salary 
less than $200 per year and that twenty-nine taught for from 
seventeen to twenty-eight dollars per month. 

Salary at Present. 
The annual salaries received by rural superintend- 
ents range from $25 to $5000. Sixteen receive less than 
$500 and twenty receive $2500 or more. Fifty per cent 
receive from $900 to $2500. The largest number, 18 per 
cent, receive $1500. Those receiving $100 or less live in 
sparsely settled districts and have only a few teachers to 
supervise . 



-62- 



Table 21. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Salary Keceived at Present Tine. 



Annual 


Salary 


Frequency 


Annual 


Sal ary 


Frequency 


$ 25 - 


50 


1 


$ 1200 - 


1300 


53 


50 - 


100 


3 


1300 - 


1400 


20 


100 - 


200 


2 


1400 - 


1500 


22 


200 - 


300 


3 


1500 - 


1 600 


63 


300 - 


400 


2 


1600 - 


1700 


7 


400 - 


500 


5 


1700 - 


1800 


10 


500 - 


600 


6 


1800 - 


1900 


24 


600 - 


700 


8 


1900 - 


2000 


1 


700 - 


800 


12 


2000 - 


2500 


39 


800 - 


900 


11 


2500 - 


30C0 




900 - 


1000 


12 


3000 - 


4000 




1000 - 


1100 


17 


4000 - 


5000 




1100 - 


1200 


11 


5000 







Number reporting salaries --------- 351 

Median salary - -- -- -- -- - -- -- $1400 r 

Average salary of those reported ----- 1416-p 



-63- 



Chapter VII. 

Work Performed by Rural Superintendents. 
Number of Schools and Teachers Supervised. 

The total number of schools supervised by the 353 
superintendents was 29,087. This includes 148 city, 3,233 
town or village, 23,018 one-room district, and 1,917 two-room 
district schools, 360 township high schools, 43 county high 
schools, and 368 consolidated schools. The city school 
supervision is a small item as compared with the rural school 
supervision, because most cities have their own superintendents 
independent of the county or township. 

The total number of teachers supervised is 44,383. 
All but nine superintendent s reported upon this point. The 
average number of teachers for one superintendent is 129. 
Fifty-one per cent have from 50 to 125 teachers. The largest 
number have between 50 and 75 teachers. 

Table 32, 



Distribution of Rural Superintendent with Reference to 
Numbe r_ol T eache rs^Sup ervi sed . 



Number 


Frequency 


Number 


Frequency 


Number 


Frequency 


1 


- 25 


19 


225 - 


250 


14 


450 - 


475 




25 


- 50 


31 


250— 


275 


7 


475 - 


500 


1 


50 


- 75 


51 


275 — 


300 


6 


500-- 


525 


1 


75 


- 100 


48 


300 - 


325 


2 


525 - 


550 




100 


- 125 


46 


325 — 


350 


3 


550 - 


575 


1 


125 


- 150 


38 


350 - 


375 


4 


575 - 


600 


1 


150 


- 175 


32 


375 - 


400 


3 


600 - 


625 




175 


- 200 


20 


400 - 


425 


1 


625 - 


630 




200 


- 225 


14 


425 - 


430 












Number 
Median 
Averagt 


number of teachers supervised - - 
> number of teachers supervised - - 




■ 344 
. 100 


- 125 



-64- 



Number of Visits to Teachers. 

All but sixteen reported the approximate number 
of visits made to each teacher annually. Those making the 
largest number of visits are township supervisors. Over 
half of the superintendents visit their teachers from one 
to three times per year while 22 per cent visit them at 
least not more than once a year. 275 or 77 per cent visited 
some of their teachers more than once last year. The number 
of teachers each visited more than once varied from one to 
200 . The total number thus visited was 11,013 or 24 per 
cent of the 44,383 teachers supervised. Sixty-four super- 
intendents visited all of their teachers twice and forty- 
eight visited all of them three or more times. 217 or 61.4 
per cent visited some of their teachers three or more times. 
The total number thus visited was 5,223 or 11.7 per cent of 
the total number of teachers supervised. 









-65- 


















Table 33. 














Distribution of 


Rural Superintendents with Refer - 


nca 








to Visits made to 


each Teacher per 


Year . 








Fr e 




Fret 




Fre- 






Fre- 


Vis it s 


qi ency 


Visits 


q>. ency 


Visits 


quency 


Visits 


n 1 1 A Y\ V 
^ U O 11 U ¥ 


1 


76 


2 


40 


4 


6 


10 - 


15 


1 


1-2 


41 


2-3 


27 


4-5 


3 


1 U — 




1 


1-3 


60 


C - *k 


5 


4-12 


1 


12 




1 


1-4 


8 


2-5 


4 


5-6 


2 


15 




2 


1-5 


2 


2-6 


2 


6 


4 


15 - 


20 


1 


1-6 


2 


3 


15 


7 - 12 


1 


16 - 


20 


2 


1-7 


1 


3-4 


8 


8-10 


1 


18 - 


36 


1 


1-8 


1 


3-5 


3 


8-12 


1 


25 - 


30 


1 


1-10 


1 


3 - 10 


1 


9-20 


1 






■ - — 






337 








Median number of visits made 


- - - - 1 


- 3 














Table 


34, 












Distribution of Superintendents with 


Reference to 








Number of Teachers Visited more than 














once last 


year. 










Teach-' 


Fre- 


Teach- 


Fre- 


Teach- 


Fre- 


Teach- 


r re- 


ere 


quency 


ers 


quency 


ers 


quency ers 


quency 


1-5 


18 


40-45 


16 


80-85 


6 


120-125 




1 


5-10 


25 


45-50 


10 


85-90 


4 


125-130 




1 


10-15 


18 


50-55 


25 


90-95 


4 


130-135 






15-20 


15 


55-60 


5 


95-100 


7 


140-150 




2 


20-25 


27 


60-65 


11 


100-105 


4 


150-160 




5 


25-30 


14 


65-70 


5 


105-110 




160-170 




2 . 


30-35 


17 


70-75 


8 


110-115 




170-180 




1 


35-40 


9 


75-80 


10 


115-120 


1 


170-190 


















190-200 




1 














200 




1 





-66- 



Number of superintendents that visited some of their teachers 
more than once ------------------ 275 

Median number of teachers who were visited more than once -35-40 

Average number visited more than once --------40 



Table 35. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Number of Teachers Visited more than 
Twice last year. 



Teach- Fre- Teach- Fre- Teach- Fre- Teach- Fre< 

_ers flu enc y, ^ ere £uencj£ erg quency ere quen cy 

30 30-35 13 65-70 2 105-110 1 

,1-5 33 35-40 3 70-75 2 110-130 1 

5-10 35 40-45 8 75-80 2 130-166 2 

10-15 32 45-50 3 80-85 1 166 1 

15-20 21 50-55 12 85-90 1 

20-25 20 55-60 2 90-95 2 

25-30 14 60-65 4 100-105 2 



Number of superintendents who visited some of their teachers 
more than twice last year --------- 217 

Median number of teachers visited more than twice last 
year - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 10-J.5 

Average number of teachers visited more than twice - - - 24 

Length of Visits to Teachers. 
From one to three hours is the length of ti£e 
chosen for the larger part of the superintendents to spend with 
their teachers. Those remaining less than an hour have few 
teachers to supervise and make several visits per year. The 



-67- 



shortest period tftime spent per visit was 10 minutes and the 
longest, one day. The shortest time spent per year in 
visiting a teacher was 10 minutes and the longest time spent 
with any teacher was 60 hours. Because of the indef init eness 
given both to the number of visits and length of each, it was 
impossible to find more than an approximate average. If a 
superintendent says that he makes from one to three visits to 
each teacher per year and stays from one to three hours each 
time, one might find the shortest and the longest time he could 
spend. In this case it would be one and nine hours. In 
finding the minimum hours a superintendent might spend per 
year, the time was found to range from one-sixth of an hour 
to 48 hours, with the median at two and the average at three. 

The maximum limits were one-fourth and sixty hours 
with an average of six and a median of four and one-half hours. 
This is too high because no superintendent claims to spend this 
much time. The correct time will fall between the maximum 
and minimum. If the maximun average were given, even this is 
not enough time to spend in rural supervision. 

Table 36. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Length of Visits to Teachers 



Hours Fre Hours Fre- Hours Fre- Hours Fre- 
quen cy qu ency quency que ncy 

1/6-2/3 1 1/2-3/4 4 2/3 1 1-4 4 

1/6-6 1 1/2-1 6 3/4-1 5 1 1/4-1 1/2 10 

1/4-1/2 2 1/2-1 1/4 11 40 1 1/2 51 

1/4-3 1 1/2-1 1/2 1 1-1 1/4 1 1 1/2-2 4 



-6 8- 



Table 36 (Cont'd). 



Hours Fre Hours Fre Hours Fre Hours Fre 
g uon cy £u<rnc£ guency g u e nc y 



1/2-2 4 

1/3-1/2 2 2-3 2 1-1 1/2 4 1 1/2-3 5 

1-2 15 

1/3-1 1/2 1 1/2-6 1 1-3 18 1 1/2-6 2 

2 59 2 1/2 8 4 1 2-2 l/2 1 

2 1/2-3 15 12-3 3 3 56 

6 4 2-4 2 3-4 l/2 12-6 3 

.3-5 1_ 2_l/4 1 3-6__ __2__ 



Number reported ----------------- 331 

Median time spent according to arrangement of Table 36 
l/2 to 3 hours. 

Table 37 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents v/ith Reference to 
the Minimum Hours that each might Spend with 
each Teacher. 



Hours Fre- Hours Fre- Hours Fre- Hours Fre- Hours Fre- 
£.ejr_y_r_j quenc y c^u a nc y _ _ gne ncy . SLJifiEJSLE qu enc y 



1/6 


1 


1 1/2 


42 


4 1/2 


4 


9 


4 


20 


1 


1/3 


2 


2 


53 


5 


4 


10 


1 


22 1/2 


1 


1/2 


14 


2 1/4 


1 


6 


26 


12 


6 


24 


2 


2/3 


2 


2 1/2 


4 


6 1/4 


1 


15 


3 


27 


1 


1 


51 


3 


51 


7 


1 


16 


1 


37 1/2 


1 


1 1/4 


6 


3 3/4 


1 


7 1/2 


1 


18 


1 


48 


l 


1 1/3 


2 


4 


32 


8 


3 


20 


1 







Median number of minimum hours spent per year ------ 2 ^ 

Average number - - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 3 -+- 

This was found by taking the smallest number of visits 
per year and the smallest amount of time for each visit. 
The maximum time for table 38 was found by taking the 
largest number of visits and the largest amount of time. 



-69- 
Table 38. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to the 
Maximum time that might be Spent per Year with 
each teacher. 



Hours 


Fre 




iour s 


Fre- 


Hour6 


Fre- 


Hours 


r re- 


lours 


Fre- 




uuency 




est ency 


quency 


quency 




quency^ 


1/4 


1 




2 


35 


5 


6 


10 


2 


21 


1 


1/2 


5 


2 


1/2 


4 


6 48 


12 


15 


24 


2 


3/4 


2 


2 


2/3 


1 


6 1/4 


1 


12 1/2 


1 


30 


6 


2/3 


1 




3 


44 


6 3/4 


1 


15 


8 


36 


2 


1 


14 


3 


3/4 


3 


7 1/2 


3 


16 


3 


45 


2 


1 1/4 


2 




4 


28 


8 


7 


18 


8 


54 


1 


1 1/2 


19 


4 


1/2 


15 


9 


26 


20 


1 


60 


2 


Median 












per 


year 



Average number, -----------6+ hours per year. 

County Institutes Held. 

County institutes are held by 307 superintendents. 
Seven hold them bi-annually and 229 hold one each year. One 
holds sixteen and two hold ten each year. The average is 
between one and two each year. 

The total attendance at all of the institutes was 
45,436, an average per county of 147 or per institute of 88. 
There were 88 institutes whose attendance was larger than 
the number of teachers supervised, thirty-five had as many 
in attendance as there were teachers in the county, and one 
hundred eighty-three had a smaller attendance than the 
enrollment of teachers for the county. 



-70- 
Th e length of those institutes varies from one- 
half day to ten weeks. The largest number were held a week. 
Forty-one were held for one day only and fifty-two for two 
day s . 

Table 39. 

Distribution of Kural Superintendents with inference to 

liHB^i r ^£l_££HIiil_IlllliiH^ e . s ---?i®i^. _£er_JTe . 

(lumber of ~~ Fre- Number of Fre- Number of Fre- No. of Fre 

Institutes quency Institutes quency Institutes quency Institutes qu 

ency 



Bi-annually 7 2-6 1 

1 229 3 9 

1-2 2 3-4 1 

1-3 1 4 12 

2 44 



5 

5-7 
6 

7-10 



8 
9 
10 
16 



Total number held, 511 (using average numbers, e.g. "1-3" 
c ount ed as 2 ) . 



Total number of superintendents holding Institutes 



307 



Median and average number held per year - -- -- -- -- -- 1-+ 



Table 40 



L en gt h No_ 

1/2 day 

1/2-1 « 

1 

1 1/2 » 
1-2 » 
1-3 ■ 
2 " 



Distribution o /Institutes with Pefert; nc e to Length 



.Length. 



1 
1 

41 
1 
3 
2 

52 



2- 3 days 

3 » 

3- 5 ■ 

4 ■ 

5 ■ 

1 week 



.No. 
2 

27 



8 

116 
43 



Length 



No 



Length 



No 



6-10 dayi 
8 » 
10 " 
12 ■ 
2 wks 

1-2 « 



_6_dayj3_ 10 20 day s. 



1 
2 
3 
1 
19 
1 
2 



3 weeks 

4 » 

5 » 

6 « 
10 ■ 

2 mos . 



13 
19 
1 
4 

1 
1 



Number of institutes whose length was given 
Median length of institutes -------- 



394 

5 days 



-71- 



T own ship Institutes Held. 

One hundred ninety or 53$ of the rural superintend- 
ents hold township institutes. About an average of nine 
each are held per year. The median number, however, is six. 
The length of these institutes varies frou: one-half to three 
days. 123 are held for one day at a time. An exact 
estimate can not "be made of the attendance because so many 
gave no definite answer. Many said that all or a certain 
per cent attended and gave no idea of the number of teachers 
in the township. The answers are given, however, to show 
that it seems that the attendance justifies the holding of 
these institutes. 

The nature of the work varies from that of having 
a good social time to strictly school room routine. Reading 
circle work claims the time of the largest number of these 
meetings with professional work next. It is hard to tell just 
what is included in most of the terms. There is no hard and 
fast line drawn between terms. Very likely the same things 
are discussed under different names. Several topics are often 
discussed in the same meetings. 



-72- 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Peference 
To Number of Township Institutes Held. 



Number Fre- Number Fre- Number Fre- Number Fre- Number Fre- 
guer cy ^.uen cy_ ^ue ncy fru.enc.y_ -.uency 



No num- 
ber given 8 3 15 5-18 2 9 7 15-2C 9 

1 11 3-6 3 6 18 10 8 21-40 15 

1- 7 1 4 18 6-10 2 10-20 1 48-80 11 

2 14 4-6 3 7 6 11 1 

2- 3 2 5 19 8 13 12 7 

Number holding Institutes --------- 190 

Median number held - -- - - -- -- -- - 6 + 

Average number held ------------ 9+ 



Table 42. 
Length of Township Institutes. 



Length Number Length Number 

Less than l/2 day 18 1 l/2 days 1 

1/2 days 33 1-2 days 3 

1 day 123 1-3 days 3 

2 days 6 

Number who reported length ----------- 187 

Median number of days -- ----------- 1 

Average number of days ------------- 1 



-73- 



At tendance 
of 

Teachers 



Table 43. 

Distribution of Township Institutes with Reference to 

Attendance. 

Attendance Fre- Attendance Fre Atten Fre 
of quency of quency dan quen 

c e gx 



Fre- 
quency 



Teachers 



T eachers 



lOOfc 


32 


90fo 


2 


10 


Fair 


1 


99% 


1 


25 


Good 


8 


1/3-1/2 of 


1 


50 






teachers 






75* 


1 


1-10 « 


9 


100 



29 


150- 


200 


6 


33 


200- 


300 


5 


21 


300- 


400 


3 


11 


400- 


500 


l 



Number of institutes siven - - - - - - - - 164 



Table 44 

Distribution of Institutes with Reference to Nature of 
Work_Done_in_t hem^ r 

Nature of work Number Nature of Work Number 



Reading Circle 


38 


Academic 


8 


Demonstrations or] 




Cultural 


3 


model lessons} 


14 


discussions 


24 


Observation 


4 


! ound table discussions 5 


School Visitation 


3 


r o f e s 8 i c n al ) 




Pap ers 


7 


Pedagogical T 




Lectures 


20 


Inspirational) 


37 


Principles, methods 




School problems 


19 


and devices of teaching 


26 


School subjects 


14 


Course of study 


6 


Co-operation of club 


1 


Plana 


2 


work 




Pupil contests 


2 


Parents' meetings 


1 


Drills 


1 


Rural problems 


6 


School exhibits 


4 


Local problems 


6 


Social time 


2 


School administration 


2 


School Organization 


I 


G-eneral supervision 


2 



-74- 



Othar Teachers' Meetings. 



Forty-two per cent of the rural superintendents hold 
meetings for their teachers other than county ortoamship 
institutes. The work done seems to be somewhat similar to 
that of the township, except there seems to be no observation 
or model lessons. A few hold meetings in connection with 
farmers' institutes and trustees' meetings. Reading Circle 
work is done in twelve of these meetings. It, as well as most 
of the work, might be classed as professional. Methods of 
teaching and school problems of various kinds seem to be the 
topics discussed in u.ost of these gatherings. 

Table 45. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to 
Number of other Teachers' Meetings Held. 



Meetings 


Fre- 


Meetings 


Fre- 


Meetings 


Fre- 


Meetings Fre- 




quency 




quency 




quency 


quency 


1-2 


48 


4-5 


14 


7-8 


6 


10-20 , 8 


2-3 


23 


5-6 


12 


8-9 


2 


20 - 100 11 


3-4 


13 


6-7 


8 


9-10 


8 


100 



Number of superintendents reporting meetings ----- 151 

Median number of meetings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3-4 

Average number of meetings -------------- 9+ 



-75- 



Tuble 46. 

Distribution of wieetin^s with Reference to Nature 
of Work Done in them. 

Nature of Work Number Nature of Work Number 



n e a u i ii rf i lrcis 


x <z 


r euagogi cax 


1 


Papers 


1 


I nspirat ional 


9 


Lectures 


5 


School problems 


11 


Methods 


10 


School subjects 


4 


Course of study 


4 


Local problems 


9 


Plans 


1 


School administration 


1 


School organization 


3 


Aid beginners 


2 


Academic work 


3 


School fair 


1 


G-eneral discussions 


5 


Farmers? institute and) 








Trustees meeting with t 





Pro f essional 


11 


teachers ) 








- 96 








Heading Circle Work. 




From 50 to 100 


per 


cent of the teachers in 181 




counties do the Reading 


Circle Work. This os over one 


-half 


of the counties represented 


The largest number of tea 


chers 


do the work in counties 


where recognition counts either 


on 


the renewal of certific 


at es 


or on the grade of the original 


one. A spur or reward 


seems necessary. 





-76- 



Table 47. 

Distribution of the Rural Superintendents with reference 
to the Percentage of Teachers doing the 
Reading Circle Work. 



Per cent Fre- Per cent Fre- Per cent Fre- Per cent Fre- 



quency quency quency quency 

1-5 2 30-35 9 6G-65 7 90-95 16 

5-10 3 35-40 65-70 1 95-100 13 

10-15 9 40-45 7 70-75 2 100 75 

15-20 5 45-50 1 75-80 18 

2C-- 25 10 50-55 30 80-85 14 

25 - 30 11 55-60 1 85-9© 4 

Number of superintendents reporting Reading Circle Work 

done by teachers ----------------- 237 

Median per cent doing work -------------- 80-85 

Table 48. 



Recognition given to the Reading Circle Course by the 



Various Superintendents. 

/ Kecognition Frequency 

Renewal of certificate 98 

Exemption of examination in certain subjects or^i 

credit given on license or certificate 37 

State examination based on work 5 

Professional certificates 29 

Professional credits 29 

.Required 7 



Credit or recognition is not given in all counties. 
Some counties give several kinds of recognition. 



-77- 



Number and Nature of Circulars Sent to Teachers. 

Two hundred eighty-eight superintendents send 
circulars to their teachers as a means of improving their work, 
"but only 192 gave the number of circulars sent. As many 
sent les3 than six as sent more than six circulars. One 
claims that he sends a hundred. One hundred and eleven dif- 
ferent superintendents sent copies of the circulars, letters, 
cards, school papers, year books, pamphlets, booklets, and 
other forms of printed or typewritten matter which they send 
to teachers, patrons, and school officials. Seven limit- 
ed their communications to announcements and programs of 
teachers' institutes. Others 3ent circulars and pamphlets 
giving instructions for work of a general character while still 
others gave detailed instructions for the teaching of some 
particular subject. A few sent circulars to their teachers 
to be used as texts. Twenty sent agricultural lessons to 
their teachers, six sent spelling lists, four sent lessons in 
civics and list of national, state, and county officers, two of 
local geography and history, two of farm arithmetic and one each 
sent lessons on reading, health, and cooking. They have 
given instructions concerning special day programs, spelling, 
agricultural, industrial, domestic science, and drawing con- 
tests for home credit work, school laws, examinations, reading 
circles, boys 1 and girls' clubs, and certification in their 
circulars. They have issued lists of books and journals for 



-78- 



th a teachers and lists of text books for the children of the 
county, directories of teachers and officers, handbooks, 
school premium lists, lists of pictures, school papers^ and 
annual reports or year books. Added to these, we find cir- 
culars and pamphlets issued concerning the following subjects: 
medical inspection, sanitation, home improvement, play, 
cooperation of patrons, teachers pensions, traveling pedagogical 
libraries, school rallies, moral training, social center, 
social survey of county, the principal's duty, purchasing 
supplies from agents, standard of efficient schools / and con- 
solidation. 

Among the list of announcements and programs are 
found eight for trustees' and directors' meetings, ten for 
county commencements for eighth grade, twelve of contests, 
exhibits, meets and rallies. Four have school work in connect- 
ion with Farmers' Institutes. Fourteen superintendents edit 
school papers or magazines. Nine publish Annual Reports in 
which have been emphasized the photographs and lists of the 
best equipped schools and goals to be won or reached. The 
newest and most interesting features of these reports were, - 
school credit for work done at home by the pupils, various 
kinds of contests, among which were corn, potato, tomato, and 
alfalfa growing contests for the boys, and bread making'and 
sewing for the girls. 



-79- 



Tcble 49. 

Distribution of Kural Superintendents with Refer nee 
to Number of Circulars Sent Annually to 
T eachers . 



Number Fre- Number Fre- Number Fre- Number Fre- 





quency 




quency 




quency 




quency 


1-2 


17 


5-6 


26 


9-10 


19 


20-25 


1 


2 - 3 


17 


6-7 


16 


10-11 


15 


25-50 


1 


3- 4 


25 


7-8 


3 


11-14 


4 


50-100 


1 


4-5 


21 


3-9 


13 


14-20 


10 







Number of superintendents giving number of circulars sent - - 192 
Number who sent circulars -------------- - - - - 288 

Median number --------5-6 

The minimum number of circulars was taken in computing this 
t ab 1 e . 

Other Means of Impro verr.ent of 
Teachers During Service. 
Besides teachers' institutes, meetings and circulars, 
some superintendents use other devices for the professional 
improvement of their teachers. Many encourage their attendance 
at schools in the summer a3 well as for the whole year, others 
urge their activity in the social life of the community, while 
many others strive to improve their teachers through professional 
reading. Some superintendents who find a teacher weak in some 
part of her work send her to visit another who is more successful 
with that subject. 

, 



-80- 



Table 50. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to 
the Means (other than regular Supervision) used 
to Improve the Work of Their Teachers. 



Plans 



Frequency 



Urge attendance at 
Normal schools, colleges, 
summer schools. 
Urge attendance at 
Farmers' Institutes, 
mothers' meetings and 
other district meetings. 
Visit other schools 
Demonstration lessons) 
by superintendent 1 
Urge subscription to) 
papers ) 
Training by correspondence 
Publish column in county) 
paper ; 
Lectures and addresses 
Publish school paper 
Promotion 

Keport of institutes 
Employ supervisors ) 
and substitute teachers J 
Extension work 
Grade on succes 
Attendance at Stat 
Convent ions. 



atej 



27 



6 
10 



12 
14 

11 
4 
3 
2 
2 

2 
1 
1 



Plane 



Frequency 



Plan reading course 
Exhibits, contests,) 
and rallies J 
Teachers library 
Traveling library and) 
pictures \ 
Stereoptican lectures 
Urge home visitation ) 
and meetings with » 
school officers J 
Distributes literature' 
from normal schools j 
and universities 

Plan books 
Essays on work 
Send bulletins 
Reviews on special) 
subjects ) 
Program for special) 
days. ) 



Number reported --------- 141 

Some superintendents use several plans 



14 

7 
2 

2 
1 



Teachers' examinations and Certification, 



One of the chief duties of rural superintendents is to 
hold teachers' examinations. Uf the 353, who answered the 
questionnaire, 317 said that they held examinations. The 
average number held annually was 3.7. One claims to hold 20, 



-31- 



and 25 hold only one per year. Nineteen of the 36 who did not 
say that they held examinations were township superintendents 
who are not required to hold them. Only 294 gave even 
approximately the number of teachers examined. In instances 
where the reply was from "5 to 15" the average "10" was 
taken. In some other cases where the number seemed too large,,, 
the number of teachers supervised was compared to it. The 
total number of teachers examined per year and also the total 
number passing will not be exact, but it will give a fair 
idea of the number. The total number of teachers examined 
as counted examination by examination was 31,945. This gives 
an average of 108-j- per year. This means that 108f sets of 
examination papers must be corrected and graded per year. 

The number of teachers who were successful in these 
examinations was found by the same method as the above. The 
total was 18,350 approximately. Only 263 superintendents gave 
the number who passed. This made an average of 69-J- per year. 
Hence only about 63 per cent of teachers who apply for certi- 
ficates are successful. 

The total number of certificates renewed annually 
without an examination is approximately 8,681, an average of 
44 to each of the 193 superintendents who reported. Those 
given on college degrees or diplomas number 1,221, an average of 
ten to e_ach 116 reporting, and those on normal diplomas, 2,263, 
an average of seventeen to each 130 reporting. The approximate 
total from the four sources is 30,520 certificates. Since 



-82- 



there are 44,383 teachers supervised, this leaves 13,853 
teachers without certificates. These are given by the 
superintendents who failed to reply and by state and other 
examining boards. From the figures obtained, twenty-eight 
per cent had certificates renewed. Sixty per cent took 
the examination, seven per cent received certificates on 
college, and four per cent on normal diplomas. 

Renewal of Certificates. 

The largest number of superintendents renewed cer- 
tificates on successful school work. The next larger number 
required heading Circle Work to be done. Some may have in- 
cluded this in the professional work which was required by 
thirty-nine. Others required a certain grade to be made in 
the previous teacherfe examination or the holding of a certain 
grade certificate. Attendance at schools and teachers' 
institutes and meetings were other requirements to be met to 
have a certificate renewed. Some made only one requirement 
while others asked for four or five of the list. 





-83- 
i at) l e Di . 






Distribution of Kural Superintendents with Reference 
to the Number of Teachers' Examinations 
Held Annually. 




Exani- 
inat ions 


Fre- Exam- I're- Exam- Fre- Exam- 
quency inations quency inations quency inations 


Fre- 
quency 


1-2 

X — £t 


25 5-6 1ft 9-10 1 12-20 


4 


2-3 

61 — a 


7 6 6-7 1 7 10-11 5 20 


1 


3-4 

<3 — "t 


62 7-8 2 11-12 2 




4-5 


89 8-9 15 




Five gave indefinite answers as "4-8", in this instance, the 
" 4 M was used. 






Table 52. 






Distribution of Superintendents with Reference to 
Number of Teachers Examined for Certi- 
ficates Annually. 




Teach era 


Fre- Teachers Fre- Teachers Fre Teachers 
quency quency quency 


Fre 

quency 


1-25 


36 125-150 11 250-275 5 500-600 


1 


25- 50 


51 150-175 26 275-300 2 600-700 


1 


50 - 75 


25 175-200 7 300-350 10 700-800 




75 -100 


32 200-225 26 350-450 2 800 


1 


100-125 


43 225-250 13 450-500 2 




Number 







So many of these replies were indefinite that the above table 
is Oily approximately exact, In such replies as "5-15" 
I averaged the two and called it "10". Again, some gave 
the number for the year instead of each examination of the 
year. 



-34- 
Th a following was taken from the replies and counted 
reply by reply. 

Total number of teachers ----------------- 31,945 

Median number of teachers ---------------- 100-125 

Average number examined annually ------------- 108r 

Total number of certificates renewed annually without 

examination ------------------- 8,681 

Total number of certificates given on college degrees 

or diplomas -------------------- 1,221 

Total number given on normal diplomas ----------- 2,263 

Table 53, 

Distribution of Kural Superintendents with reference 
to Condition upon which Certificates are 
Renewed without Examination. 

Condition Frequency 

College degrees 6 3 Per cent 

Normal diplomas 6 3 Per cent 

Attendance at schools 

Summer \ 

Normal 1 

L 43 22 " " 

High schools V 

College / 

Successful work 9 3 48 ■ ■ 

Professional work 39 20 " " 

Attendance at institutes 

and teachers' meetings 40 20 " " 

Reading Circle Work 69 35 " " 

High grades 30 15 ■ " 

Recommendation of superintendents,) 

as city, etc. J 8 4 « » 

Certain certificates, as first grade 42 21 " " 

Number reported - - - - - - - - - - - - - 193 

Many had several conditions upon which to renew certificates. 



-85- 



Written Reports from Teachers. 

The largest per cent of the superintendents who re- 
plied concerning the reports from teachers as to the different 
items listed required these to be made annually. An excep- 
tion, however, was found concerning the attendance of pupils. 
Sixty-three per cent required this to be made monthly, while 
8 1/2 per cent required it from twice a week to twice a month. 
More superintendents require reports concerning attendance of 
pupils than for anything else. The fewest required reports 
for individual peculiarities and causes of s^me. 

As to the use of these reports when collected, 124 
were silent. Of the remaining 229, one hundred four use 

them simply to file in the office or to report to higher 
officials, that is, no other use was stated, Of the remaining, 
125 or 35.4 per cent use them in supervision, and as means of 
improvement of schools. A few use them to apportion the 
school money and others use them in assisting the truancy 
officers . 

Table 54. 

Distribution of RuraJ Superintendents with Reference 
to Frequency of Written Reports Required Con- 
cerning (a) Attendance of Pupils. 



Frequency Wo. of Frequency No. of Frequency No. of 

_o£_r e port s Supt s . of reports Supts. °i_££E°££fL. Supts . 

2 per week 2 1 per month 200 6 per year 

1 ■ ■ 22 bi-monthly 11 4 » ■ 9 
2 ■ " 3 8 per year 1 3 " ■ 

2 per year 15 1 per year 39 bi-annually 



Total reporting ------------ 314 

Median ----------- - - - _ - one per month, 



X one 

<itaoca leq 

( ) nor 



-86- 






Table 55. 

lb J A^e. 






Frequency Ko.of Frequency No. of 
_o^_rep^rte^u£t s JL _of _re£0rt a_Su^t 

2 per week 1 per co. 75 


Frequency No. of 
of reports Supts. 

6 per year 


Frequency lio.o 
rejo rt s Supt s 

2 per yea.r 22 


1 " "2 bi-monthly 6 


4 " ■ 3 


1 per year 117 


3 " "2 8 per year 


3 " ■ 24 


bi-monthly 1 




?52 

two per year. 




T ab 1 a 5 6. 







L£i-&£*l£± 

Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency No. of 
of rep orts Supts. o f reports Supts^of ^refcorts Supts. of reports Su pts 

2 per week. 1 per mo, 80 6 per yr. 3 2 per yr. 36 

1 " " 2 bi-monthly 17 4 per yr. 9 1 ■ " 83 

2 M month 1 8 per year 3 H 11 24 bi-anr.uaLly 



255 

three per year. 
Table 57. 

(_d) Individual peculiari ti es and causes. 

Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency No.i 
£f .reports Supts. of reports Supts. of report s Supts . re&ort s_Su£t _s 

2 per week 2 1 per mo. 33 6 per yr. 2 per yr. 6 

1 ■ " bi-monthly 9 4 " " 3 1 per yr. 61 

2 per mo. 1 8 per yr. 3 " M 13 bi-annually 



Total reporting ---------- 128 

Median --------- - - - - - two per year. 

Table 58. 

. (e) Textbooks. 

Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Fresuency No. of 
of reports Supts. of reports Supts. of reports Supts. of reports Sujatsu 

2 per week 1 per mo. 28 6 per yr. 1 2 per yr. 8 

1 ■ " bi-monthly 4 4"" 1 " ■ 96 

2 ■ mo. 8 per yr. 3 " " 18 bi-annually 



Total reporting 
Median - - - - 



Total reporting 
Median - - - - 



155 

one per year 



-87- 




Table 59 


• 


(_fj_ Reference books on fil 


e . 


Frequency Mo. of Frequency No. of 
of reports Supts. of reports Supts. 


Frequency No. of Frequency :.o.ol' 
of reports Supts. of reports Supts 


2 per week 1 per mo. 22 


6 per yr. 2 per y r. 11 


1 w n bi-monthly 4 


4 ■ " 1 " " 13 2 


2 H month. 3 per yr. 


3 " n 13 bi-annually 




- - - - 182 


Table 60. 

(g) Apparatus. 


Frequency No. of Frequency No, of 
of reports Supts. of reports Supts. 


Frequency No. of Frequency No. of 
of reports SupJ^s, of reports Supjtsj 


2 per week 1 per mo. 19 


6 per yr. 2 per yr 13 


1 " " bi-monthly 5 


4 ti n i i ti n J36 


2 " month 8 per yr, 


3 M " 19 bi-annuaily 






Table 


61. 


(h) Daily Programs, 




Frequency No, of Frequency Ho. of Frequency No, of Frequency Ko.o 
of reports Supts. of reports Supts, of reports Supts. of reports Sup 


2 per week 1 per month 27 


6 per yr. 3 2 per yr. 33 


1 " » bi-monthly 5 


4 per yr. 4 1 " H US 


2 M month 8 per year 


3 per yr. 35 bi-annualiy 






Table 62. 

Ii) Condition of Buildings and Grounds, 


Frequency No. of Frequency No, of Frequency Ho, of Frequency No, of 
£i_r.eports Supts. of__rePorts Su?ts. of r e bo rt s_Su:t s^o f reports Supts. 


2 per week 1 per mo. 


6 per yr. 1 2 per yr. 14 


1 H ■ 1 bi-monthly 5 


4 ■ ■ 1 " " 12 8 


,■„», month 


3 " " 14 bi-annuaily 







-88- 






Table 63. 






L±) Other Items. 






Frequency No. of Frequency No. of Frequency 
of reports Supts. of reportaSupts .of reports 


No. of 

Suuts 


Frequency lio.of 
■ o f r e_p_ o r t s R up_ t s • 


PrtAr-wAAl' 1 nor n n T Q A n A r* v 1" 
wpoivvooit. x pei Hi U . A > j OpOiJf* 


2 


2 per yr. 5 




1 


1 ■ ■ 77 


2 H month. 8 per year 3 n w 


6 


bi-annually 




per year. 


1 d Die Ort. 






Summary of Median Frequency of Reports. 


It ems 


Frequency of Report 


Attendance of Pupils 


1 


per month 


Age " " 


2 


per year 


Grades 


3 


per year 


Individual peculiarities] 
and causes j 


2 


per year 


Text books 


1 


per year 


Reference books on File 


1 


per year 


Apparatus 


1 


per year 


Daily Programs 


1 


per year 


Condition of buildings and grounds 


1 


per year 


Other items 


1 


per year 





89- 



Table 65. 



Distribution of Superintendents with Reference to 
"Use made of these Reports from Teachers. 



Uses 



Frequency 



Uses 



Filed in office 

Filed for state report 

Guide to supervision 
and as a recommendation 
for improvements 

Index to teacher's work 

Filed for use of school 
boards 



General information 
concerning schools 



Filed for use of school 
truancy officers 



71 

56 

45 
29 

24 

19 

13 



Promote attendance at; 
school 

Filed for use of new 
teachers 

Published in Co. papers 

Pre-requisites to appor- 
tion money 

Filed for use of school 
pat rone 

Used at institutes 



Frequenc; 
13 

11 
7 



In reply to the request for copies of reports that 
they asked of their teachers, 101 responded. Nineteen sent 
copies of preliminary reports, these ^re made at the beginning 
of the term and usually state enrollment, and condition of 
equipment. Seven sent copies of weekly reports of attendance, 
and enrollment. The monthly and term reports are more 
elaborate. The age, grade, classification, attendance, and 
advancement of the pupil6 are given as well as the list of 
books, condition of the school house, equipment, and programs. 
The annual report is different in that it gives a summary of 
the 7/hole year and s-v-e-fc other items which are called for by 
the state department of education. Forty-seven sent copies 



-90- 



of monthly, forty-three of term, and twenty-three of annual 
reports. There were many copies of special reports sent.. 
There were:- individual reports of pupils, relation of school 
to social life of community, cnetral or final examination, 
professional report of teacher, inventory of school property, 
special list of questions, list of text books used, enroll- 
ment of Pupils' Heading Circle, Honor noil 'for attendance, 
seed corn tests, visiting day report, flag report, home work 
credits, truancy, deliquency, result of scholarship examination, 
Arbor Cay report, daily lesson plans, eye tests, supplies 
needed, and "A" class examination report. 

Tab le 6 6. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with reference 
to Kind of Reports sent. 



Kind Frequency 



Preliminary 19 

Weekly 7 

Monthly 47 

Term 43 

Annual 23 

Special 64 



Number sending copies ---------- 101 

Many sent more than one kind. 

Measures of Merit for Teachers. 
In reply to the question concerning the use of a form 
or standard to judge the merit or success of a teacher, 107 
said that they used one. One hundred three sent either printed 
or written forms. Only a few gave the weight attached to each 
item. More attach importance to the government of a school, 



-91- 



if wo classify interest of pupils under that head, but if it 
is placed undor instruction, the emphasis is transferred to 
that head. These items may be interpreted in many ways, as 
will be seen by their ind e f i nit ene s . The classification 
in the table was not made by the superintendents. In most of 
the lists the classes were not broken up at all. A few of 
the forms are copied to give an idea of their contents. In 
my opinion the fifth and sixth are much better than the first 
four. 

Table 67. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Whether they use a Form or Standard with 
which to judge the Merit of Teachers 
or not. 

Number who gave no reply 86 
" ■ replied "No" 97 
" « « "Yes" 170 or 4 8$ of all. 



Table 68. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference to 
Items used in Measuring the Merit or Sucess of 
Teachers. 





Fr a- 


Items 




auencv 




Personality 


22 


Professional development 


Physi ccxl 


1 


Attendance at meetings and 


Health 


11 


institutes 


Voice 


6 


Professional attitude 


Indus t ry 


4 


toward teaching 


Ability to do things 


2 


Professional spirit 


Neatness of attire 


39 


Total 


Deportment 


1 


Eeari ng 


1 A 


s an instructor 


Energy 


2 


Preparation 


Total 


89 


Gradation 



Mental 
Tact 

Speech or language 
Conduct 
Alertness 
Interest in work 
Tone of character 
Manne r 
Jud gment 
Sympathy 

General resourcef ulnei 
Devotion to duty 
Total 



24 
2 
1 
1 

10 
1 
9 
1 
1 
1 
1 

52 



As s ignment s 
Texts 

Follow course of study 
Presentat ion 

Skill in presentation 
Method 

Response of children: 

(a) in school 

(b) out of school 
Play 

Thoroughness 

Speed 

Progress 

Total 



Fre- 
quency 

2 
27 
2 

3__ 

34 

63 
4 
4 
4 
1 
1 

16 
3 
23 

6 
6 
1 
4 
1 

4_ 

148 



As a Student ( scholarship) 31 
Certi f icate, grade of 18 
Professional reader 25 


Government - .... 
Power and ability 

Order 


23 
32 


Normal training 
Experience in teaching 


1 
5 


Disc ipline 
Order of room 


39 
19 


Total 


80 


Management 
Spirit of school 


7 
1 


Community Interest 
Ability to secure 
attendance of pupils 
Care of property and 
equipment, records 
Sanitary conditions 


8 
3 

5 8 
2 


Class spirit 
Program of studies 
Interest of pupils 

Total 


1 
20 
44 

186 


Library or Pupils Read- 
ing Circle 

Part taken in affairs 


1 






of community 


5 






Total 


77 






General efficiency 


7 







93- 



Number who sent lists --------- 1C3 or 

■ ■ » printed forms 54 

The remainder either- wrote out the items or sent them 
in handbooks, pamphlets, or circulars. 
8 sent or wrote out form "1" - attached. 
10" »» " " " " 2 " - " 
4 tt ti i! ,ii it n 3* _ " 
3 n n n ti it it 4 it „ « 
2 « « i« it it » 5 " » w 
]_ it it ii ii it it 5 ti . ■ > 



Form " 1 " 
The Teacher 

Personal Appearance 

Governing Power 

Teaching Ability 

Tact 



Records 



The Pupils 



Order 

Interest 

Studiousne8s — 

Conduct out of School 



Form "2? 

TEACHER 



Preparat i on 



Salary ■ Attends Institute Local mee tings 

Professional Reader Personality Health ■ 

Plans Work Skill in Presentation--. Discipline 

Tact Records Order Pupil • s Interest 



-94- 



Form J! .3" 



SCHEDULE ITEM OF SUCCESS. 



THE TBACHEE 



100 per cent. 



A. 



TEACHING POtEH 



45 per cent. 



Many iteius enter into this, but the 
principal ones are preparation of lesson, 
skill in presentation and results attained. 



The teacher's power in government is 
shown in the general spirit of the school, 
and in the attitude the pupils take toward 
their daily taeka, toward each other and 
toward the school property . 

C. GEN'L. CHARACTERISTICS 20 per cent. 

Under this head the personality of the 
teacher, his professional and community interest, 
and all those qualities that make for the best 
citizenship should be considered. 



E. 



GOVERNMENT 



35 per cent . 



Success 



-95- 



Form w 4" 

Method 

Discipline 

Thoroughness 

Int erest ■ 

Neatness 

Ability 

Kind of Certificate 

Is daily program posted in a conspicuous 
place? 

Is daily program being followed? 

Daily Registers 

Free Text Book Record 

Class Register 

Library Record ■ 



-96- 



SCHEDULE OF SUCCESS I TIMS 

1. The Teacher 1 100$ 

A. Personality 20$ 

1. Physical; health, habits, industry, ability 

to do things, cleanliness, neatness of 
attire, associates, places and kinds 
of amusement. 

2. Mental: moral worth, habits, disposition, 

temperature, individuality, originality, 
power of initiative, self-control, sarcasm, 
sincerity of purpose, attitude toward 
children, ability to meet people. 

B. As a student 1 5$ 

1, Lines of study pursued 

2, Lectures attended 

3, Vacation schools attended 

C . Professional Development 15$ 

1. Probelms of teaching studied 

2. Work in township institutes or teachers' 

meetings in cities and towns 

a. Preparation 

b. Presentation 

3. Attitude towards educational meetings 

a. Attendance 

b. Participation 

4. Lectures attended 

5. Vacation schools attended 

C . As an Instructor 20$ 

1. Preparation 

a. Before coming to class 

b. Assignments 

c. Skill in bringing the pupils into the 

right conscious attitude for the new truth 
to be presented. 

2. Presentation 

a. Knowledge of the mind of the people 

b. Knowledge of the matter to be presented 

c. Knowledge of ways of presentation 

d. Skill in presentation 

3. Comparison or interpretation based on childrens' 

experi enc es 
a. Skill in keeping the minds of all the 

pupils centered on the new truth being pre- 
sented, and upon their own experience that 
will help them interpret at the same time. 

4. G-ene rali z at ion 

a. Skill in leading pupils to draw correct 
conclusions and to state them well 



-97- 



5. Application 

a. Skill in making pupils realize the new 

truth as their own. Ability in lead- 
ing pupils to discover that school 
problems are life problems 

Government 

1. Two ways - 

a. Through the conscious use of rewards 

and punishments 

b. Through the inspiration of personality 
Two types of order; 

a. Cons t rained, unnatural and dead 

b. Free, natural and alive with the busy 

hum of industry that accompanies the 
understanding that each pupil is to 
do his work without disturbing his 
neighbo r s 

Community Interest 

As illustrated by- 

a. Ability to keep pupils from withdrawing 

from school 

b. Ability to secure regularity in attend- 

ance 

2. As illustratsd by- 

a. Ability to send common school graduates 

to high school 

b. Ability to send high school graduates to 

higher institutions 
As illustrated by- 

a. Care of school property, school yard, 

wood pile, out-buildings, keeping re- 
cords and making reports 

b. Sanitary conditions, decorations and 

neat ne ss 

c. Ability to establish libraries and Young 

Peoples' Reading Circles 

d. Co-operation with teachers, supervisors, 

and school officials in school plans, 
exhibits and meetings 

e. Part taken in the plans and affairs of 

the community 



-93- 

Teacher 3036 of Grade for School 



Preparation-- High School 1 ( ); Vo- 
cational 1/2 ( ); certificate l/2 ( ); 
experience 2 ( ) * 

Pe rsonality--Character 2 ( ); orig- 
inality 1 ( ); civility 1 ( ) 4 

Teaching Ef f i c iency--h'xpo sit ion 2 
( ); immediate results ( ); re- 
mote results 1 ( ) 4 

Professional Ac t ivi ty r-Loyal ty 1 ( ); 

social and club work 1 ( ); meetings 

1 ( ); study 1 ( ) ------- 4 

Salary — $160.00 ( ); $240.00 1 ( ); 

$320 2 ( ); $400.00 3 ( ); $480.00 

4 ( ) 4 



Patrons' or Parents' Meetings. 

Thirty-six per cent of the superintendents hold 
patrons' or parents' meetings. The most of them hold from 
one to seven during the year. 

Circulars Sent to Patrons. 

Forty per cent send circulars or newspaper 
articles to the people of the county or district, to interest 
them in their schools, and to gain their cooperation for im- 
provement. There are 143 who send these circulars, but only 
86 gave the number sent. From one to four is the number 
usualy sent. Some send one per month. 



-99- 



Table 69, 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Number of Patrons' or Parents' Meetings 
Held Each Year, 



Meetings 


Fre- 
quency 


Me et ings 


Fre- 
quency 


Meetings 


Fre- 
quency 


Meet ings 


F 
qu 


Me et ings 


held 


4-5 


3 


9-10 


1 


25-30 


7 


but no number 














given . 


29 


5-6 


5 


10-12 


3 


30-40 


5 


1-2 


19 


6-7 


7 


12-15 


5 


4C-50 


4 


2-3 


8 


7-8 




15-20 


7 


50-200 


2 


3-4 


8 


8-9 


4 


2C-25 


6 







Number who held meetings --------- 128 

Number who gave number held------- 99 

When indefinite numbers were given the 

smaller number of the two was taken. 
Median number of meetings held ------ 6-7. 



Table 70. 



Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Number of Circulars Sent to Patrons. 



Circulars Fre- Circulars Fre- Circulars Fre- Circulars Fre- 
qu enc y ^ue nc_y_ q^uenqx quenc; 



1 


- 2 


29 


4 


- 5 


6 


7 - 


8 





12 - 25 


6 


2 


- 3 


21 


5 


- 6 


4 


8 - 


9 


2 


25 - 75 


6 


3 


- 4 


7 


6 


- 7 


2 


9 - 


12 


3 


No definite 





number 57 



Number who sent circulars - . ■ 143 

Number sending circulars who gave number sent — - 86 
Median --------------------- 2-3 



-100- 



Division of Time. 

Rural aupe rint anient s seem to spend about two- 
thirds of their time in the office. Of 225, one-half spend 
100 days or less, one-fourth of them spend from five to 60 
days, while another fourth spend from 120 to 200 days in 
actual supervision. Of the group which gave the days spent 
in clerical work the median fell on 140 days, and the average 
on 129. Only 141 answered definitely. One hundred and 
fifteen did answer as to days and hours spent both in super- 
vision and clerical work. These may be compared faiily well 
but there is one flaw, however; 3ome count the hours actually 
spent in the class room while others count the time in going 
to and from the school as supervision also. Comparing the hours 
spent in supervision to those spent in clerical work gives us 
a ratio of 1 to 2 . 2> } c ompar ing the days (disregarding the hours) 
gives us 1 to 1.4. The total number of hours which these 115 
superintendents spent in supervision was 58,630 and that in 
clerical work was 135,072. 

The total number of days spent by the same 115 
in supervision was 10,948 and in clerical work, 15,901. The 
averages were 95 and 138 days respectively. 

State Superintendent Blair of Illinois in his annual 
report for 1910 gives an average of 102 days for school 
visitation, 137 days for strictly clerical work and 201 
days for official service (all time not spent in school 
visitation) for each superintendent of his state. This 



-101- 

gives a ratio of 1 to 1.3 for school visitation compared to 
strictly clerical work and 1 to 1.97 for school visitation 
compared to all other official duties. 

This brings several questions to our minds. Do 
we engage our superintendents to supervise or to act as 
office clerks? If the latter, are we not paying rather h igh 
salaries for clerks? Are not many spending more time than 
is necessary in clerical work? Could not the "annual report" 
be made during the summer months and all of the time that 
school is in session be spent in school supervision? 

Table 71. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to Days per Year spent in Actual Supervision. 

Days spent Fre- Days spent Fre- Days spent Fre- Days Spent Fre- 



in super- 
vision 


quency 


in super- 
vision 


quenc y 


in super- 
vi sji^on 


quency 


in Super- 
vision 


quen 
cy 


5-10 


1 


45 


4 


85 


3 


135 


1 


10-15 


3 


50 


21 


90 


9 


140 


8 


15-20 


4 


55 


1 


100 


45 


150 


17 


20-25 


2 


60 


13 


105 


1 


160 


7 


25-30 




65 


1 


110 


3 


175 


2 


30-35 


9 


70 


6 


120 


11 


180 


6 


35-40 


2 


75 


9 


125 


4 


200 


8 


40 


8 


80 


13 


130 


3 







Total number who gave days - -- -- -- -- - .225 

Median number ------ ---------- 100 

When indefinite numbers were given the smaller 
was taken. 



-102- 



Table 72. 

Distribution of Rural Superintendents with reference 
to Days per Year Spent in Clerical Work. 



Days 


Fre- 


Days 


Fre 


Day s 


Fre- 


Days 


Fre 


Days 


Fre 




quency 


quency quency 




quency 




qu en 


5-10 


1 


35-40 


2 


70-80 


1 


150-160 


13 




250-275 


8 


10-15 


3 


40-45 


9 


80-90 


5 


160-180 


5 


275-310 


1 


15-20 


2 


45-50 


1 


90-100 


3 


180-200 


4 


310 


1 


20-25 


4 


50-58 


10 


100-125 


13 


200-220 


19 






25-30 


3 


55-60 




125-135 


3 


220-240 


7 






30-35 


4 


60-70 


4 


135-150 


6 


240-250 


5 






Numb er 


giving 


day s 








- 141 






Median 


numb e r 


days 








-140 







Tables 71 and 72 cannot be compared because we 



do not have the same superintendents giving both figures. 
For instance one says he spends 50 days in supervision and 
the remainder in the office, in this case no days are put 
down for no one knows what the remainder is, whether it is 
the remainder of the year or of the school year, neither do 
we know what the school year is. 











-103- 














Table 73. 










A • Dis 


t ri buti on 


of Pur 


al Superintendents with Reference 





to Number of Hours per Year 


Spent 


in Supervision. 


Hours 


Fre- 


Hours 


Fre- 


Hours 


Fre- 


Hours 


Fre- 




quency 


quency 


quency 


quency 


50-100 


2 


400-450 


6 


750-800 


3 


1100-1200 


1 


100-150 


1 


450-500 


5 


800-850 


6 


1200-1400 


4 


150-200 


2 


500-550 


12 


850-900 


3 


1400-1500 


2 


2C0-250 


7 


550-600 


3 


900-950 


5 ' 


1500-1600 


1 


250-300 


5 


600-650 


17 


950-1000 


1 


1600-1800 


1 


300-350 


7 


65C-7jOO 




1000-1050 




1800-2500 


1 


350-400 


10 


700-750 


6 


1050-1100 


3 


2500 


1 








Table 74. 








B , 


Distribution of Rura 


1 Superintendents 


with Reference to 





Number of Hours Spent Per Ye 


ar in 


Clerical Work. 


Hours 


Fre- 


Hours 


Fre- 


Hours Fre- 


Hours Fre- 


quency 




quency 


quency 


quency 


1-50 


1 


550-600 


1 


1100-1150 


4 


18CC-1900 


3 


50-100 


5 


600-650 


1 


1150-1200 




1900-2000 


2 


100-200 


3 


650-700 




1200-1250 


5 


2000-2100 


12 


150-200 


2 


700-750 


1 


1250-1300 


2 


2100-2200 


2 


200-250 


3 


750-300 


1 


1300-1350 




2200-2300 


3 


250-300 


3 


800-350 


6 


1350-1400 


1 


2300-2400 




300-350 


3 


850-900 




1400-1450 


5 


2400-2500 


2 


350-400 


1 


900-950 


3 


1450-1500 


1 


25CO-2600 




400-450 


2 


950-1000 




1500-1600 


7 


2600-2700 




450-500 


5 


1000-1050 


2 


1600-1700 


9 


2700- 


2 


5CO-550 


1 


1050-1100 


2 


1700-1800 


2 







-104- 

Number giving both days and hours spent in supervision 
and clerical work ---------------- 115 

(tables 73 and 74) 

Median number of hours spent each year for supervision - - 

550-600 

Median number of hours spent in clerical work - - - 1200-1250 
The average for supervision by actual count is 509-f- 

and the average for clerical work, 1104 hours per year. 

Total hours of supervision ------- 53,630 

" » for clerical work - - - - -135,072 

Per cent of time (hrs) spent in 

supervision - - - - - - - - - 30.2 

" " of time spent in clerical 

work ------------ 69.7 

Total number of days spent in supervision (counted 
reply by reply) by these same 115 --------- 10,948 

Total number of days spent in clerical work,, - -15,901 
Per cent of days spent in supervision - - - - 40 f 

■ » " » » " clerical work - - - 59+- 
Total days spent in supervision and clerical work, 26, 849. 
More hours per day are usually counted in office than 
in actual supervision. 

Average number of days for 115 superintendents in super- 
vision ----------------------95 

Average number of days for 115 superintendents in 
clerical work ------------------ 138 

As sis tant s . 

About 38 per cent of the rural superintendents reported 
assistants either for the office or for supervision. Many 
are for a few days only while a few have several assistants 
for full time. Fourteen assistants supervise all school 
subjects and five only primary work. Three supervise domestic 



-105- 



science and manual art, and two supervise music and art. 
Thirty failed to designate whether their assistants were 
supervisory or clerical. 

Total number of superintendents who have assistants ----137 

■ " ■ ■ ii « office assistants --7Y 

■ " ■ " " assistants to 
supervise schools or special subjects ------------32 

Number who have assistants but who failed to designate 
whether office or supervisory ------- -------- 30 

Table 76. 

Total number of assistants ----------- 172 

Number ofoffice n ----------- 83 

•• « supervisory " ---------- - 53 

" " assistants, not designated - ----- 36 

Table 77. 

Distribution of Assistants with Reference to Time Spent. 
During the Year. 

Assistants Assistants 

Time Spent Office Super- Time Spent Office Super 
v i s ry_ vis ory 

15 d *ya 1 4 months 1 

25 1 5 11 1 

70 19" 23 

100 1 1 

120 1 2/3 time 2 3 

130 2 3/4" 14 

150 1 Part time 3 2 

1 day per week 2 4 Most of the time l 1 

4 days per week 3 3 Full time 5 15 



-406- 



T*ble 78. 



Distribution of Assistants with Reference to Subjects 
which they Supervise. 



Subjects Frequency Subjects Frequencj 



All school subjects 14 Domestic Science 3 

Primary 5 Manual Art 3 

Music 2 Art 2 



Subjects Emphasized. 
Of all the subjects emphasized in schools during 
recent years, agriculture takes the lead with the State Course 
of Study; school discipline, the teaching of morals, eighth 
grade commencements, use of the English language, play grounds, 
school decoration and Domestic Science, follow in order named. 
Of the subjects listed sex hygiene received the fewest advocates, 
Forty left all spaces blank. An interesting list of additional 
subjects was given, Reading, seventh grade commencements, 
credit for home work, spelling, spelling contests, additional 
home work, physical equipment, standardization of schools, 
exhibits, pupils* reading circles^ and arithmetic were em- 
phasized by from three to eight superintendents. The following 
subjects were given by from one to two:- geography, Bailey 
evening schools, parent-teachers' organizations, pupils' clubs 
such as corn, sewing, tomato, and potato; contestsof music, 
athlet es , reading, composition, essays, declamations, agricul- 
ture and domestic science; tenth grade commencements, annual 
convocation of all schools in county, county school of domestic 



-107- 



science and agriculture, manners, hygiene, hone sanitat ion, 
traveling domestic wagon, planning of lessons, leadership of 
teacher, hot lunches, school flags, nature study, field day, 
school library, circulating library, school houses as social 
cente:8, civics, weather eports, study of educational bulletins, 
and the holding of sectional meetings. 



Table 79. 



Distribution of RureCl Superintendents with Reference 
to Subjects or Things Emphasized in the Schools. 



Subjects Fre- Subjects Fre- Additional Fre- 
£U£nc_y_ £ u .e. n .c.X. SuJsJLec.ts °»lL2.1t5.i. 



Manual training 


106 


Play grounds 


138 


Reading 


8 


Domestic Science 


131 


State Course of 


226 


7th Grade Com. 


5 


Vocational train- 




Study 




mencements J 






Physical train- 


62 


Crddit for home. 


5 


ing 


r 


ing 




wo rk \ 




Agriculture 


247 


Sex Hygiene 


9 


Spelling 


4 


School Gardening 


77 


Medical Inspect- 


78 


Spelling contests 


4 


School decora- 


131 


ion 

8th Grade Com- 


157 


Additional • hi,me 


3 


tion 




mencements 




work 




Athletics 


72 


Oral composition 


95 


Physical equip- 


3 










ment 




Flexible grading 


32 


Use of English 


142 


Standardization 


3 










of schools 




Midyear promo- 


29 


Oratoricals 




Exhibits 


2 


tions 












School discipline 


168 


Pupil self govern- 


41 


Pupils* Reading 


3 






ment 




Circle 




Mu si c 


97 


Reduction of arot.] 


24 


Arithmetic 


4 


Drawing 


102 


of home work of (■ 




Penmansh ip 


4 


Teaching of ) 


164 


pupils ) 




Geography 


I 


Morals ; 












Number who 


gave 


no subjects emphasized 







-108- 



Chapter VIII. 

Handicaps Experienced by Rural Superintendents and 
Suggested Imp rovement s . 

The handicap which the largest number of rural super- 
intendents have met is untrained and inefficient teachers. 
Seventy-eight per cent refer to this draw back. The next great- 
est hardship is too many schools to supervise. A surprising 
feature was the email number who claimed to be handicapped by 
politics. Thirty-three superintendents gave no handicaps 
whatever. One said that he had eliminated all of them. The 
following additional li3t of handicaps was given by from one 
to five each. They are given in rank of numbers from five to 
one, - too small salary, poor school equipment, lack of legal 
authority, poor school attendance, bad roads, parocHal schools, 
ignorant school officers, small schools, long distance to 
schools, small taxing unit, school boards which are afraidjof 
criticism of parents, non-uniformity of text-books, rural 
schools are merely practise schools, unequal valuation of school 
districts, ignorance in choosing teaching by school boards, too 
much eotton gathering, small county (little) time, lack of 
home teachers, community jealousies, teaching too many school 
subjects per day, magnificent areas, moving pictures, leniency 
of parents to children, envious teachers, ignorance and pre- 
judice, nepotism, social conditions, unpractical course of 
study, lack of money although taxes are as high as possible, 
lack of cooperation of men of money and power, short school terms 
undeveloped condition of country, and lack of time for actual 
supervision of teaching. 



-109- 



Table 80. 

Distribution of Eural Superintendents with Reference to 
the Handicaps which have seriously impaired the 
Efficiency of their Supervision. 

Handicaps Frequency Handicaps Frequency 

Untrained, inefficient 250 
teachers 

Too many schools to 

supervise 191 

Disinterest of school 

patrons 188 

Number who gave no handicaps -------- 33. 

Suggested Improvements of Rural Schools. 

Three hundred and twenty-five superintendents gave 
what in their opinion would add most to the improvement of the 
schools in their counties or districts. Of this number, 266 
or 81 per cent of them say that higher qualifications of teach- 
ers will aid most. The other things suggested to them follow 
in rank:- higher wages of teachers, better school buildings and 
apparatus, cooperation of teachers and patrons, using the school 
as a social center, a longer school term, cooperation of 
teachers and closer supervision. 

To those were added many suggestions of their own. 
The one most often suggested was that of consolidation of 
schools. Othere were: schools made to fit the child to 
environment, better attendance , the township unit of supervision 



Lack of clerical help 180 

Low taxes 149 

Lack of cooperation 

of school officers 121 

Politics 78 



11C- 



compulsory educational law, closer relation between home and 
school, better attitude and interest of patrons, better care 
in the selection of teachers, county unit of supervision, more 
money, better roads, teachers especially prepared for rural 
schools, larger state tax, laws governing the erection of 
school buildings, efficient school officers, school papers to 
interest patrens, text books furnished by the state, better 
course of study, regulation of number of pupils to teacher by 
law, equal social standing of teacher and patron, less 'red 
tape', rural high schools, compulsory attendance enforced by 
££H££i officer, less crowded programs, one supervisor for every 
fifteen schools, county commencement, full time of superinten- 
dent to supervision, better teachers in normal schools and 
colleges to teach the prospective teacher, all schools to open 

and close at the same time of year, better play grounds, 
cooperation of church and school, and coSperation of school 
atod shop. Some of these suggestions overlap and some include 
many others, but they have been quoted as given so as to ^et 
the exact ideas of these superintendents. 



-Ill- 



Table 81. 



Distribution of Superintendents with reference to 
Suggested Improvements for their Schooi. 



Suggested 
Improvement s 



Fre- 
quency 



Suggested 
Improvement s 



Fre- 

quency 



Higher qualification of 

teachers 
Higher wages of teachers 

Better school buildingsj 
and apparatus J 
Cooperation of patrons 

and teachers 
Using school as a social 

c enter 
Longer school term 
Cooperation of teachers 
Closer Supervision 
Consolidation of schools 
Eetter attendance 
Schools made to fit the 
child to environment 



266 

230 

227 

ai6 

212 

163 
131 
116 
21 

8 



Better attitude and in- 
terest of patrons 

Township unit of super- 
vision 

Better care in the se- 
lection of teachers 
Compulsory educational law 

& oser relation between 
home and school 

County unit in super- 
vision 

More money 

Better roads 

Teachers especially pre- 
pared for rural schools 



Number not suggesting any improvement 



28 



Number suggesting improvements 



325 



-112- 



Chapter IX. 

The Typical Rural Superintendent of the 
United States, 

By taking the averages and medians obtained by the 
answers to the various questions, one might find a super- 
intendent who would be typical of those represented. It is 
not likely that such a one exists, but one might imagine one 
endowed with the average qualifications and doing the average 
work of this group. This average, or typical, or median su- 
perintendent is not an ideal one by any means. He stands be- 
tween the poorest and the best; it is doubtful whether he has 
reached the halfway point of our ideal superintendent. But 
it is not the i ntention to find ideals by this investigation - 
only to find what really exists, and, by "typical" is meant a 
superintendent of average or median qualifications and doing 
an average or median amount of work, as shown by the returned 
questionnaires. 

The typical rural superintendent of the United States 
is a male, thirty-nine years of age, and was born in the county 
in which he now resides. His father's occupation at the time 
he began to teach was farming and his parental family consist- 
ed of six children. His father and mother were born in the 
United States and English was spoken in the home. He is 
married and to a woman who is not a graduate of a secondary 
school. 



-113- 

He has attended a secondary school from five to 
six years. His major subject in college was language and he 
holds a state certificate. No academic work has been done 
since election but he attends both sectional and state con- 
ventions. Ke taught school twelve years before election, five 
of which were spent in a country school. 

His salary is $1400 per year. He supervises 129 
teachers, visits only a few of them more than once and spends 
from one to two hours at each visit. He aims to improve his 
teachers in service by holding one county institute, one townp- 
ship institute each year, by giving credit for reading circle 
work and by sending circulars to them. He holds about four 
teachers' examinations at which 108 teachers are examined a»- 
nually. He grants 69 certificates to these and renew^s 44 
because of their successful work and professional interest. 

He requires reports concerning attendance monthly, 
concerning age, grade, and individual peculiarities, once per 
term, and text books, apparatus, and programs annually. He 
uses no form to judge or measure the merits of his teachers, 
holds no patrons' clubs or meetings and sends no circulars to 
them. He spends 100 days in school visitation and 140 days 
in clerical work. He has no assistant. He has emphasized 
the study of agriculture and the State Course of Study in his 
county. He has been handicapped by lack of clerical help, too 
many schools to supervise, untrained inefficient teachers, and 
disinterest of patrons. He would suggest as improvements 



-114- 



of the rural schools:- higher qualifications of teachers, 
better school buildings and apparatus, higher wages of 
teachers, cooperation of patrons and teachers, and using the 
school as a social center. 



-115* 



Chapter X. 

Correlation of Time Spent in Supervision of School 
Visitation with Number of Teachers Supervised. 

The superintendents who gave the number of both 
the days spent in school visitation and the total number of 
teachers supervised numbered 157. The number of teachers 
supervised and the time spent were compared or correlated. The 
coefficient of correlation by like and unlike signs was 
negative .0628. This means what common sense teaches us that 
the amount of time that may be spent in supervision decreases 
as the number of teachers increases. That this does not hold 
true infspecial cases is shown by the following: One superintendent 
spends 150 days supervising 15 teachers, another spends 150 days 
with 83, another 150 days with 512, and another spends 30 days 
with 250 teachers, another spends 144 days with 30. Taking 10 2 
superintendents who have no assistants at ail and by the same 
method the coefficient is .1843. There is practically little 
difference. 

The data taken from Superintendent Blair's last report 
(1912) gives a coefficient of .218 for those with and without 
assistants. correlating those without assistants, we obtain 
a coefficient of .368. From the same data we find that 12 of 
the 30 superintendents of Illinois who have assistants spend less 
than 100 days in school visitation. The average number of days 
spent in school visitation in 1912 in Illinois w,.s 98.8. The 
average number of teachers per county for the same year- "-s 297 . 



-116- 



Correlation of Academic Training with Pro- 
fessional Interest. 

The time spent in visitation by days, the institutes 
attended, other than county, the township institutes or 
meetings held, other teachers' meetings held, circulars sent 
to teachers, other means of improvement of teachers given, 
use of teachers' reports other than filing or making annual 
state reports, patrons' meetings and circulars rent to patrons 
to interest them in their work were considered in trying to 
find the effect of academic training upon the efficiency of 
rural supervision. These are the things that they might 
do voluntarily without being driven by law. These things 
were measured according to their own statements. The number 
of meetings held or circulars sent was not taken into consider- 
ation, merely the fact that they did these things. These 
things show an attempt to do something other than hold down 
an office chair. 

Those having normal or college training or both 
make the best showing in all but two comparisons. These were; 
the use made of reports sent in by teachers and the median 
number of days visitation of school. 





-117- 






Table 82. 




Distribution of Rural Superintendents with Reference 
to professional Interest taken as measured by 
the following items. (Percentages of groups 
are taken instead of numbers.) 


Academic 
preparat ion 


Attending Hold Hold Send cir- 
aasociations township other culars to 
other than in Institutes teachers' teachers 
own county meetings 


Less than a 
year or no- 
thing beyond 
high School 


83 38 


32 69 


years of 
normal train- 
ing 


97 60 


50 87 


Hold college 
degrees 


95 59 


55 81 


Academic 
preparation 


Using other Reports 
means of used for 
improvement otherwise 

than merely 
to file 
for Annual 
R epo rt 


Hold Send cir- 
Patrons' culars to 
Clubs or Putrons 
Meetings 


Less than a 
year or no- 
thing beyond 
High School 


32 44 


32 34 


Two or more 
years of 
normal train 
ing 


54 35 


40 41 


Hold college 
degrees 


47 35 


35 35 





-118- 



Table 82 (Cont'd) 



Academic Preparation Days Visitation 
Average^ Median 

Lesa than a year oi* 

nothing beyond 91 ICO 
high school 

Two or more years of 

normal training 92 100 
Hold college 

degrees 9 6 ICO 

Number in first group ---------------49 

" " second " --_------_-_-» 117 

■ " third " — 117 

" first group visiting IOC days ----- 3 

" " second group visiting 100 days - - - - 17 

" " third group visiting 100 u&ys -- - - - 14 



Comparison of County, District 
and Township Units of Supervision. 

Illinois county superintendents, New York district 
superintendents, and the township superintendents of Maine, 
New Hampshire, Ohio and Vermont were taken as r ep» s ent at i ve 
of the above units. 

Fifty-four rural superintendents from Illinois, twenty 
four frcn New York and twnety-eight from the other four states 
are compared. Three per cent of the superintendents of Illinois, 
2 5 per cent of New York, and 7 ft of the other states ure women. 



-119- 



Illinois has the oldest superintendents and pays the highest 
salary. Ail are native torn arid New York has the largest 
per cent born in the county and state in which they are now 
living. It has also the highest per cent reared in English 
speaking families, but it has the lcwest per cent if native 
parentage. 

Strange to say, the New England states and Ohio have 
a larger per cent whose fathers were farmers than either New 
York or Illinois. 

The Illinois superintendents are from the largest and 
New York's from the smallest families. New York has the 
fewest married men and women and the lowest per cent of wives 
and husbands who have ^b-e-e* graduated from secondary schools. 
New York leads in the percentage of those attending high school 
and normal school, but the New England states and Ohio lead in 
the per centage of college attendance, ana the number of degrees 
held. 

Only 20 per cent of the superintendents of Illinois 
held state certificates at the time of their election as com- 
pared to 95 per cent in New York. 

Their academic training since election does not amount 
to much in any state. In attendance at sectional and mational 
educational meetings, Illinois stands first, but for t hose 
of the state, New York, leads. 

The Illinois superintendents have had more experience 
in rural schools and less in city schools than the others. 



120- 



They have also had longer experience in both teaching and 
supervision, and a larger per cent were engaged in teaching 
before election. 

Illinois has the largest average number of teachers 
under the supervision of one superintendent, but the super- 
intendents of Illinois spend the least time in supervision. 
The New England and Ohio superintendents have the f ev;s s t numb e r 
of teachers &nd spend more time in supervision than those of 
Illinois, but less than those of New York. Sixty-four per 
cent of the former visit their teachers six or more times, while 
none of the Illinois superintendents visit any of their teachers 
more than three times, 

Illinois has a larger number of Teachers' Institutes 
and a larger at t en dan c e j but in proportion to the number of her 
teachers it is smaller than in the other states. A larger 
number of New York superintendents hold township institutes, 
but those of Illinois hold more local teachers' meetings. A 
larger percentage of the Illinois teachers do the reading Circle 
Work . 

New York superintendents send more circulars to 
teachers as a means of improvement of their work than the other 
s t at e s . 

Illinois superintendents hold far more teachers' 
examinations than the other states. 

Illinois superintendents call for more reports from 
their teachers than the others. More claim to vise them for 



-121- 

other purposes than the Annual Report in the other states. 

Eighth grade c ommenc ement s, the State course of Study, 
agriculture and flexible grading have "been emphasized most 
frequently by the Illinois superintendents; the State Course 
of Study, agriculture, and medical inspection have been em- 
phasized in New York; and school discipline, agriculture, play 
grounds and the use of the English language have been emphasized 
by the regaining states. 

All claim that they are handicapped the most by un- 
trained, inefficient teachers, and the least by politics. 

All sections agree that higher qualifications of 
teachers are needed most in the improvement of schools. A 
trifle larger per cent of the New England States and Ohio 
think so than New York or Illinois. 

In general, the Illinois superinte^ients are the 
poorsst qualified, receive the highest wages, have the most 
teachers to supervise and do the laast supervising of the 
three sections compared. 

The township supe ri nt endtt s seem to be a little better 
qualifi ed academically, spend less time in supervis ion^ and 
receive less wages than those of New York. 









-122- 














T 


able 83. 












Comparison 


of the 


Fural Cuperintendent3 of 


Illinois 






New York 


, and the New England 


States and 


Ohio 






or of 


County, 


Dist ric 


1 1 and 


Township Units 






as 


Fepre s 


e n t e d by 


these 


Stat es . 






Items in 


Illinois 






New York 




Me.N.HjO; 


Vt . 


Quest ionnaire 


Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per 


Num 








ber 


cent 


ber 


Cent 


ber 


c ent 


1 . 


Number from each 
















State 


54 




24 




23 




2 . 


Sex 
















Male 


52 


96 


18 


75 


26 


92 




Female 


2 


3 




2 5 


2 


n 
( 


3. 


Age 
















Average 


41 




37 




38 






Median 


42 




39 




36 




4. 


Salary 
















Averse ' &1859 




1483 




Si 01 2 






Median 


2000 




1 500 




1 AOS 

X U C D 






Nativity 












100 


5. 


Native born 


54 


100 




100 


23 




Born in present 














state of resid 
















enc e . 


46 


85 


24 


1C0 


17 


60 




Born in present 














county of resi 


d- 














enc e . 


33 


61 


16 


66 


11 


3 9 




Average years 
















residence in 
















county 


17 




10 








6. 


Language of 
















father's home. 
















Engl ish 


51 


94 




1UU 


O 7 


96 




German 










1 




7 


Nativity of father. 














Nat i ve 


47 


ft 7 


20 


83 


27 


96 




Foreign 


7 


12 


4 


16 


1 


3 




Nativity of mother. 














Nat i ve 


52 


96 


21 


ft? 


c 


89 




Foreign 


2 


3 


3 


12 


3 


10 


8. 


Father's occupation 














Farmer 


32 


59 


15 


62 


20 


71 




Business 


2 




3 




3 






Pro f e ss ion 


3 




1 










Lahore r 


2 


29 




21 


1 


21 




Artisan 


7 








1 






Retired 


2 




1 




1 






Deceased 


6 


11 


4 


16 


2 


7 





-123- 

" "i riinoTs 
Num. Per- 
b e r Cent 


New York 
Nuu Per 
ber cent 


Me . H .H. 
Num 
ber 


cent 


Items in 
Questionnaire 


9. Father's family 














Average 


6 




4 




5 




e d i a n 


6 




4 




| 




10. Marital State at 














election • 














Married 


42 


77 


12 


50 


20 


76 


Single 


12 


XX 


12 


50 


6 


2 3 


Scholarship of Hus 














band or Wife. 














High School G-rad. 


16 


47 


3 


25 


8 


65 


Normal " ■ 


1 


2 


2 


16 


2 


10 


College " 


3 


7 


1 


3 


3 


1 5 


11. School attendance 














before election. 














High School (Number 












reported) 


34 


62 


24 


100 


27 


96 


Average years 


3 




3 1/2 




3 




Median years 


3 




4 




4 




Normal school 














(Number) 


29 


53 


15 


62 


11 




Average year3 


1 




2 




1 




Median years 


1 








j 




College or Uni- 














versity (Number) 


26 


48 


3 


50 


17 




Average years 


2 




12 




4 




Median years 


2 




3 




A 

•* 




Major subjects 














Kathemattc 3 


3 




1 




6 




Hi st ory 


3 








2 




Educ ati on 


3 




1 




1 




Science 






4 




6 




Political science 


1 












Economics 










2 




English 






3 




4 




Law 


1 








1 




Classics 






3 




2 




Medi c ine 






1 








Degrees geld 


11 


20 


11 


45 


19 


67 


A . B . 


3 




4 




9 




E.S. 


3 




1 




4 




LL.B. 


2 








1 




B.P. 


2 




2 




1 




4:8; 


1 




3 




1 










1 








Ph.B. 










q 






-124- 



1 1 e m a in 


Illinois 


New 


York 


U ■ ; X • H • 


• o • vt . 


Qu83tionrittir9 


Num— P e r - 


N uiiit 


Per- 


If U l. - 


Per- 


— 


bar B a n t 


b er 


cent 


b e r 


cent 


12. Certificate held at 










time of election 












None 




1 








County 








1 




Fi rat 


41 










Second 


1 










State 


11 20 


23 


95 


24 


85 


aUDifi v 't o n H a n + 

u |i o i -k. w v i: u q u u 








3 




13. Number raising grade 












of certif icate 


2 3 


3 


12 


8 


26 


14. Academic training since 










election in weeks. 












Total 


215 


24 




232 




Normal s-hool 


12 






28 




College or u'niv. 


54 


14 




62 




Extension course 


149 


10 




24 




No.ftaving training 


10 13 


4 


16 


11 


39 


15. Conventions 












Number attending 










78 


Sectional 


C <5 O C 
06 3 


21 


87 


22 


State 


A A Q A 

4 4 o4 


23 


95 


21 


75 


Na ti o nal 


20 33 


2 


3 


4 


14 


16. Years experience in 












teaching and super- 












vision 












Aver age 




22 




13 




Median 


1 9 


17 




12 




Country school 












Number of super- 












intendent s 




17 


70 


23 


82 


Years taught 












Average 


6 


4 




6 




Median 


5 


4 




4 




Village school (grades 


\ 










Number 


1Z 24 


5 


20 


7 


25 


Years taught 












Average 


5 


1 




3 




Median 


2 


2 




1 




Department teacher 












in grades 












Number 


4 


5 




1 




Village or town 












principal 










33 


Number 


37 68 


8 


33 


9 


Years taught 












Average 


4 


6 




4 




Median 


4 


6 




A 
% 




Ward principal 


3 5 


2 


8 







-125- 


I terns in 


Illinois 


New 


York 


Me; N. 


i;0;Vt . 


Que s t ic nnai re 


Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


— 


ber 


------ 


ber 


---- 


— — — 


- c - • — 


High school teacher ) 


3 


5 


12 


50 


9 


33 


and academy teacher ) 








High school principal^ 


5 


9 


8 








and academy principal ; 








33 


13 


46 


Supervisor of special 














subjects 











2 


7 


Assistant city super- 














intendent 


1 




o 




1 


3 


City Superintendent 











4 


14 


Numb er 


13 


24 










Average years taught 7 












Median " " 


7 












Normal school teachers 






o 




1 


3 


College or university" 






o 




o 




County Superintendents 














Number giving years X 


3d 


70 


21 


87 


21 


75 


Years in Office 1 














Ave rage 


6 




4 




4 




Median 


7 




2 




4 




17. Business before election 












Number teaching 


48 


83 


17 


70 


22 


78 


Years engaged 














Average 


15 




12 




12 




Median 


14 




10 




9 




Number e'gaijiged in: 














Farming 






3 




1 




Bus iness 














Art i sans 














Labo rers 










1 




Professions 






2 








Housekeeper 














or at home 






1 




1 




18. Schools under supervi 


3ion 












Number superintendents 












answering 


50 








3 




City 


4 60 








63 




Average number 


9 












Number of superintendents 












answering 


53 




21 




13 




Town 


540 




123 




97 




Average 


10 




5 




7 




District one-room 














schools 


52 








25 




Number of superintendents 












answering; 


5737 




1030 




266 







-126- 














New 


York 


... e • j - 


.H.;0; Vt. 


Itei-s in Num- Per- 


Num- 


Per 


Nua- 


Per ' 


Queationnaire ber cent 


ber 


cent 


k A n 

o e r 


m m. ^ 4- 

cent 




I'iawrict Twc — room 












Schools 117 


67 




37 






Number of super- 












intendents answer in g 29 












Average 4 


3 




2 






Township high schools 43 


20 










I! umber of super- 












intendents answering » D 


5 










Average 1 


4 




1 






Consolidated 












N umb er of schools 5 


5 




10 




19 . 


Teachers supervised 11 ; 233 


1.956 




619 






Average number 211 


81 




22 




20. 


Visitation 












Number of superin- 












tendents making one 












visit 53 98 


21 


87 


28 


100 




" " " two 2 3 


19 


79 


27 


96 




■ " "three 1 1 


15 


62 


24 


85 




h « "four 


7 


29 


20 


71 




■ ii "five 


3 


12 


18 


64 




" " " s i x 


1 


4 


13 


64 


o i 


lime spent ux eacn vi^a t 












Number spending 








14 




tl II ' 4i-|}iy 12 
" /JJJ 1 III, X * & 


1 


4 


4 




ii b 1-2 " 21 38 


11 


45 


13 


47 




" » 2-3 " 14 25 


6 


25 


1 


3 




ti it OCA 7 

" - /' 4 * 


5 


20 


7 


25 




Total number of teachers 












visited mors than once 1,7 69 15 


3,351 


69 


617 


99 




Average number 33 


64 




22 






Total number visited 












more than twice 3 64 3 


3,014 


52 


533 


94 




Average number 10 


50 




20 




2 3 ■ 


Total number of county 






28 






institutes held per yr. 84 


31 








Average 1 


1 




1 






Total length in days 229 


45 




7 2 






Average 3 


1 




2 






Tct*l attendance 13,29 6 


2,12 2 




2,640 






Average " 209 


132 




132 




24. 


Township Institutes 293 


65 




1 O O 






Average Number of 






8 + 






institutes 10 + 


3* 





-127- 


Iterub in 


Illinois 


N e w 


lOri 


• if a • M U 
-Cij . . . 


. , , V t 


u s t i o n n a i r © 


Num - 


r e r- 


Num- 




N urn— 


iBi - 




bor 


c ent 


ber 


c e n t 


a r 


cent 


25* Other teachers' 














meetings 


ore 




1 4 




9 3 




Average numb er of 














meetings 


X 6 








7 




. i e a i an 



6 








A _ 7 
t — / 




2 6« Number reporting 














Reading Circles 


01 




Q 


9 7 






Average percent of 














t e dC h e r s doing work 


O 








7 1 




Median number 














doing wo r k 


95 




JO 




on 




Recognition for Read- 














ing Circle Work 














Number of superint- 














endents giving renew 


al 












of c srtif ic ate 


44 


86 







e 


la 


Professional credit 


8 


15 


7 


77 


3 


23 


27. Number sending circulars 












to teachers 


49 


90 





Q 


X ■* 


ou 


Average number of 














circulars sent 


6 




6 




6 




28. Number using other mea 


ns 












for improvement of tea. 


cher s 












in service 


30 


55 




DU 


X X 


9 Q 


29. T eachers 1 examinations 














Number held annually 


290 




ou 




6 O 




Number of superint- 














endents reporting ex 














aminat i ons 


54 




15 




9 




30, Frequency of reports 














required concerning 














Attendance. Number 














requiring it: 














Weekly- 


9 


16 


24 


100 


-9- 


£&• 


Monthly 


22 


40 







28 


By term 


19 


35 






6 


21 


Annually 










Age 














Mo nthly 


5 


9 


B 

9 


20 


X 


a 


By term 


19 


35 


2 






n 
1 


25 


Annual 


22 


40 


10 


41 


9 


32 


Grade 














Weekly 










1 


3 


Monthly 


4 


7 




8 


28 




Term 


24 


44 


12 


50 


1 


25 


Annual 


20 


37 


3 


12 


1 


3 



.128- 


Items in 

Questionnaire 


Illinoia 
Hum- Per- 
ber cent 


New 
Num- 
b er 


York 
Per- 
cent 


M e . I! 
Ilum- 
b e r 


.11.0: Vt. 

Per- 
c ent 


Individual peculiarities 
Weekly 
Monthly 

T e ra 

Annual 


2 
14 

1 


3 
25 


5 


20 


1 
3 
4 
1 


3 
10 
14 

3 


Textbooks 

Monthly 
T e rm 
Annual 


7 

c 2 


12 
40 


10 


41 


2 
5 
3 


7 
17 

10 


Reference books 
Monthly 
T erm 
Annual 


12 
28 


22 
51 


14 


58 


2 
2 
7 


7 
7 
25 


Apparatus 

Mo nthly 

Term 

Annual 


15 

22 


27 
40 


14 


58 


3 
4 
6 


10 
14 
21 


Daily Programs 
Monthly 
T e rm 
Annual 






7 
11 


29 
45 


2 
12 
3 


7 

42 
10 


Condition of buildings 
and grounds 
Weekly 
Monthly 
Term 
Annual 


7 

31 


12 
57 


2 
11 


8 
45 


1 
1 
2 
2 


3 
3 
7 
7 


31. Use Made of Reports. 

Number using to file and 
for Annual Peport only 
dumber using for super- 
vision and improvement 
of schools 


14 

28 


25 
51 


8 


3 3 


6 

8 


21 
23 


32. Number having a form 
or standard to measure 
merit of teachers 


37 


68 


5 


20 


4 


14 


33. Number holding patrons' 
clubs or meetings 


18 


33 


9 


37 


7 


25 


34»Number sending circulars 
to patrons 


30 


55 


11 


45 


7 


25 . 



-129 


- 












Items in 


Illinois 


New 


York 


Me;'J .1! 


. Oj Vt 


Questionnaire 


Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 




ber 


cent 


ber 


cent 


ber__ 


cent 




Sup ervision . 














35. Total number of days spent 














in actual supervision of 














schools 






2,375 




§142 




Average number of days 


y o 




125 




102 




Number of superintendents 














reporting 




7 ^ 


19 


79 


21 


7 5 


Clerical Work. 














Total days spent in 














clerical work 


3415 




1507 




667 




Average number of days 


J 121 




107 




55 




Number of superintexients 


23 


51 


14 


58 


12 


42 


reporting 














3 6. Ass is tan t s 














CI eri cal 


1 6 




1 




1 




Sup e rv i 3 o ry 


9 












37. Number who have emphasized 














the following :- 














Manual Training 


1 6 


29 


2 


8 


8 


28 


Domestic Science 


19 


35 


5 


20 


8- 


28 


Vocational Training 


7 


12 


2 


8 


1 


3 


Agriculture 


43 


79 


19 


77 


14 


50 


School Gardening 


10 


18 


6 


25 


6 


21 


School Decoration 


2 6 


48 


10 


41 


8 


28 


Athletics 


9 


16 


1 


4 


7 


25 


Flexible Grading 


4 


74 






6 


21 


Midyear Promotions 


3 


55 


4 


16 


4 


i i 


School Discipline 


2 5 


4 6 


11 


45 


16 


57 


Music 


19 




4 


16 


10 


35 


Drawing 


18 


33 


6 


2 5 


9 


32 


Playgrounds 


18 


33 


8 


33 


14 


50 


Fallowing State Course 














of Study 


44 


81 


20 


83 


9 


32 


Teaching of Moral a 


28 


51 


5 


20 


12 


42 


Physical Training 


7 


12 


3 


12 


6 


21 


Sex Hygiene 


1 


1 










Medical Inspection 


6 


11 


16 


66 


5 


17 


Eighth Grade Commence- 














ment 3 


46 


85 


7 


29 


6 


21 


Oral composition 


1 6 


29 


7 


2 9 


10 


35 


Use of English language 


25 


46 


7 


29 


1 4 


50 


Oratoricals 


11 


20 


4 


16 


9 


32 


Pupil self-government 


3 


5 


2 


8 


2 


7 


Reduction of Homework 


6 


11 


1 


4 






Credit for Homework 














contests 






1 


4 






Boys and Girls Clubs 


1 


1 










Exhibits, school Fairs 










1 


3 



T+ . '""illinoTs Now" York ~*Me;H.H . 0/71 

I ° r, n • fum- Per- Kuiu- Per- ,u — :■ , r 1 

Questionnaire bor cont bar cent ber cent 

33. Number who have boon handi- 
capped by the "following: - 
Lack of clerical help 
Low taxes 

Too many schools to super- 
vise 

Untrained, inefficient 

teacheri 
L ack of cooperation of 

school o f f icors 
Disinterestedness of school 

pat rons 
Politics 



3 9. Numb or who advise the follow- 
ing tc improve the schools:- 



2 9 


5 3 


10 


41 


5 


17 


26 


48 


11 


45 


10 


25 


32 


59 


13 


54 


6 


21 


33 


61 


16 


66 


22 


78 


22 


40 


7 


29 


6 


21 


28 


51 


15 


62 


13 


46 


10 


18 


1 


4 


5 


17 



Closer supervision 


22 


4C 


9 


37 


5 


17 


Higher qua! i f ic at icn of 












73 


teachers 


42 


77 


18 


75 


22 


Higher wages of teachers 


32 


59 


10 


41 


21 


75 


Batter school buildings 










19 


67 
3 2 


and apparatus 


33 


51 


13 


75 


Cooperation of teachers 


12 


22 


6 


25 


9 


Co Operation of patrons 










21 


75 


and teachers 


23 


51 


16 


66 


Using school as a social 










11 


39 


c enter 


24 


44 


12 


54 


Longer school term 


30 


55 


5 


2C 


9 


32 
7 


Consolidation of schools 


2 


3 


1 


4 


2 




Make township, not district 














the unit 


2 


3 











-131- 



Chapter XI. 

Illinois School Statistics from Annual Report of 1912. 



Number of county superintendent a - - - 102 

Salaries paid to Rural Superintendents by 

State Auditor $ 193,500.00 

County board 4,739 . 25 

Incidentals 30,167,82 
Salaries of assistants 37,105,52 

Total 265562.59 
Average 2,603.55 

Number of teachers' examinations held ------- 665 

Number of schools not visited by county superin- 
tendents or assistant - -- -- -- -- -- -- 1,141 

Number of county teachers' institutes held - - - - 135 

w " counties holding " ------- 97 

Average length of days - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5.7 

Enrollment ------------------- 19,791 

Number of County Teachers' Associations held - - 275 
Total attendance ---------------- 13,870 

Number holding associations ---------- 93 

Addresses delivered by county superintendents-- 

In county ----------------- 848 

Outside county- ------------- - 16 6 

Total - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1,014 

Days attendance at other educational meetings - - 

In county ----------------- 339 

Outside of county ------------ - 349 

Total - ---------- 733*""" 

Assistants 

Number allowed by county board ------ 36 

Number ?:ho vi3it schools - -- - 13 

Number of days spent in visitation - -- -- -- - 9,988 

Average number of days per county 

spent in visit at ion - - - - - - - - - - - - 98 



-132- 



Statistica 1911 

Number of days spent in visitation ------ 3,966 

" ■ " " »' examinations ----- 3, 697 

» " ■ " " institutes 912 

" " " ■ ■ office work 14, 612 

" " ■ ■ "other official work - 2, 606 

30, 593 



-133- 



Chapter XII 

Views of State Superintendents concerning 
Rural Supervision. 

At the 3arce time that the questionnaires were sent to 
the county superintendents, a request was sent to ^11 of the 
State superintendents for their last Annual Report and any- 
thing that they had issued recently concerning rural super- 
vision. All but a few sent the material requested and 29 
expressed some opinion concerning rural supervision. 

Twenty-five said that closer supervision was needed to 
improve the condition of the rural schools. The Hew England 
States and Ohio, who had township supervision desire more 
supervisors who are better qualified, although these are as 
a rule better prepared academically than the county superin- 
tendents of the other states. At least, seventeen of the 
state superintendents aim to secure closer supervision through 
the consolidation of schools. 

Eighteen ask. for better supervisors or sup erintendent s , 
using these adjectives to express their meaning: efficient, 
professional, higher qualified, expert, trained, competent, 
intelligent, skilled, and higher academically qualified. 

Four think that setting up a standard as a model will 
help improve the schools. Others desire the interest of the 
patrons and better qualified teachers. 

I have quoted a few lines from these superintendent s . I 
selected them from different sections of the country. 



Supervision. 

"The question is often asked, What can be done for 
our rural schools? The prevalence of such a question indi- 
cates that the rural schools are not what they ought or can be. 
It is not the belief of the writer that our country schools 
have made no progress within the last twenty years, but the 
progress which they have made is not equal to the progress 
made by the city schools within the same period. What is the 
chief point of difference between the city school system and 
that of the rural schools? It is largely a matter of super- 
vision. In the city there is «. superintendent, v/ho is the 
official head of the entire system. Each ward or district 
school has a principal, who supervises that school under the 
direction of the superintendent. The superintendent is the 
guiding power of the entire system, and through his principles 
can direct the work of every teacher. By this means the 
superintendent can assist every teacher in keeping in touch 
with the best educational thought end methods." 

Ohio School Feport, 1911, p. 7. 

County Superintendents. 
"The first paragraph of a brief article on the County 
Superintendent in the last biennial report of the State Depart- 
ment of Education reads a.s follows: 

" r 'The county superintendent of schools occupies a 
very important position in the administrative affairs of our 



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school system. The efficiency of the schools under hie 
supervision will depend, in a large measure, upon his ability 
to organize school boards. He should be a man of broad 
educational preparation and of extensivo and successful 
teaching experience. To inspire and hold the confidence 
of his teachers and school board members, he mu3t be looked 
upon as a man fitted by nature and by training for his 
special work, 7,'ithout these qualifications, he fails in the 
elements of leadership, and without leadership his work i3 
sure to fall short of that justly expected of him\ w 

Utah, Annual Beport, 1912, p. 19. 



Undoubtedly the greatest problem in the State along 
school lines is the problem of the one-room school. This is 
true for the following reasons: 

1. It has been most neglected. 

2. It is most difficult to reach by supervising officers. 

3. Its trustees are usually men with least school experienc 

4. Its teachers are most inexperienced. 

5. Its teachers are most lacking in preparation. 

6. The recitation periods are shortest by reason of the 

multiplicity of grades, 

7. It has been the last to attempt grading. 
3, It has fewer vitalizing activities. 

9. It haf poorest equipment, by reason of the handicaps 
mentioned heretofore. 



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10. It is the last to attract notice by the authorities 

and to receive intelligent study. 

11. It has the shortest term. 

12. It has least funds." 



Annual Report of Department of 

Education, Alabama, 1913, p. 33 



County Superintendents. 

"In many ways, one of the most important officers in 
the whole school system is the County Superintendent. Through 
him the plans and the suggestions of the State Department are 
carried out. Teachers and trustees depend upon him for advice 
and help. To a degree, greater than most people realize, the 
schools of the country reflect the personality of the county 
superintendent. Their task is one of immeasurable importance. 
It is a service that calls for the highest order of talent. 
Our city schools are supervised by men chosen because of special 
fitness and preparation. Their salaries are, in most cases, 
almost commensurate with their duties, and their tenure of 
office depends upon their success as administrators. They are 
measured by no political guage . Our present system of se- 
lecting and dismissing county superintendents is a menace to 
our schools. That officer is called upon to do so much cler- 
ical v/ork that the time which should be given to supervision 
is spent in doing office work. The great majority of the 
children of the state can never come into their own until the 



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county superintendents are selected because of their education- 
al fitness, and the office is completely divorced from politico. 
They should be paid in proportion to the magnitude an d impor- 
tance of their work, and having proved their ability, should 
be retained in the office as long as they render efficient 
service. In the name of justice, I plead for the 34, 063 rural 
school children. Adequate salaries, efficient and reasonable 
assistance and tenure of office are immediate need3. This 
greatly needed reform can come when educators, and all real 
friends of education shall unite to secure this righteous con- 
dition. It is my earnest hope that the Twelfth Session of 
the Idaho Legislature will take steps tc right this wrong. 

Consolidation. 
"There is a growing tendency in all atates toward 
the consolidated district. It affords better educational 
facilities than the small country school; it enables a country 
school to offer, within the reach of the farm houses, as good 
advantages as a city school. It makes it unnecessary to send 
the boy and the girl away from home for a high school privileges ; 
or the parents moving to the city to give them this opportunity. 
Some of the best work in the state is being done in the consol- 
idated districts. A consolidated district is much cheaper 
than the several individual districts; it equalizes the cost 
of schooling - the thinly populated, outlying district pays no 
more per capita than the other. Fewer teachers are needed as 
the work is divided, and a system of supervision may be es- 



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tabli3hed; at least one well-educated,, experienced <*nd broad- 
ii.inded teacher may be employed, whose supervision of the in- 
experienced teachers will produce results. The health of the 
children is better, as they are conveyed in wagons, thus 
avoiding the necessity of sitting in school with damp feet an 
clothing. The attendance is more regular when conveyed to 
school, and tardiness is almost unknown. The work by the 
children is better, as numbers give life and stimulation." 

Idaho, Annual Feport of 1912, pp. 19, 23 



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Cor. elusion s dr-wn from the otudy. 

From the information gained from this study, it 
seems &3 if rural supervision is not all that it should be. 
This is admitted by both the county superintendents and the 
state superintendents. The county superintendents suggested 
higher qualifications of teachers, higher wages of teachers, 
better school buildings, and apparatus, and cooperation of 
patrons and teachers as the four things which would add most 
to the improvement of the rural schools. The state super- 
intendents think that closer supervision and better qualified 
superintendents are needed most. To this, I would suggest 
taking the office out of politics. That is, elect the super- 
intendent by a board chosen for that purpose instead of by 
popular vote. This is the method of election of most city 
superintendents, and since it is generally conceded that city 
supervision and city schools are far in advance of that of 
rural -schools it might be a good plan to imitate or follow 
their example in this respect. 



.^140 
A££ondix . 

The following quotations from various writers 
on rural supervision is appended in order to give the ^ener-1 
trend of thought at the present time! — 

'"ias sachus 9t t s rural school supervision is by f«r 
the best in the United States. Indeed this i3 the only state 
in which every rural school has close, expert supervision. 
As a result the rural schools are exceptionally good. True, 

not all are equally good but few are really poor. 

"The state requires that every town too small to have 
a superintendent of its own shall be in a "district" that shall 
employ a superintendent whose expert ability has secured for 
him a. certificate from the state board of education and who 
shall be paid not less than $1500, and no such superintendent 
shall have more than 50 teachers tc supervise, 

"Of this $1500, the state pays directly or indirectly 
$1250. Of this, $500 is conditioned upon the better pay of 
the teachers." 

•A. E. '"inship, Journal of Education, May 15, 1913, p. 541 

"Two years ago Mr.Tobin, (County Superintendent of Cook 
County, Illinois), said in his report as county superintendent:- 

* r A paradoxical condition exists in the supervision of 
our public schools. In our rural and small village schools, 
where most needed, we have none of it. Adequate supervision 
is essential to all well organized school systems. Experience 
has proven it beneficial and economical. G-ood teachers, good 
supervision, good school buildings is the trinity that when 



-141- 



properly balanced makes good schools. Our rural schools are 
frequently deficient in all three. Theyare always lacking 
in good supervision. 

,r 'The rural schools of this county have never been 
supervised. The county superintendents do not superintend, 
Neither do they supervise or direct. They can not. What they 
really do is to inspect the schools once or twice per year. 
Their title is misleading. They either should be given op- 
portunity to supervise or el3e be known by a title that will 
indicate that they really are county inspectors of schools. 

^ 'Efficient supervision of our rural schools can not 
be secured until they are grouped into districts of not ii.ore 
than 30 schools. Each district should be provided with a 
capable supervisor, who must live in the district and give 
his whole time to supervising his schools, conferring with his 
boards of directors, etc. In order to attract the type of 
men capable of supervising school work and competent in ini- 
tiating and organizing for school betterment, good salaries 
must be paid. To secure stability of tenure they should be 
placed under civil service, 

rr 'The isolation of country life is not conducive to 
the creation of movements for social improvement. In all 
communities, city or country, what is everybody's business 
becomes nobody'3 business. In our cities, the initiation 
of movements for social betterment has not come from the people 
themselves. Such movements have their origin with individuals 
and societies who make it their work to study and investigate 



cause and effect. It cannot be expected from individuals 
who are not paid for their services. Social workers, pe.id 
or unpaid, :-.nd progressive public officials should take the 
lead in such mc vekent s • 

* r It would seem that the rational way to remedy ex- 
isting conditions would be to group the rural schools into 
districts of from twenty to thirty schools, sach district to 
be provided with a competent, well paid supervisor, who must 
reside in the district and give his entire time to super- 
vising, directing and improving the work of the schools. Each 
group supervisor would be responsible to the county superin- 
tendent for the efficiency of the schools in his group as well 
as for the school interest developed and maintained.'". 

A.E. Winahip, Journal of Education, June 19, 1913, p. 693, 694 

"The rural schools are the weak point in the American 
school system. They are taught in the most part by makeshift 
teachers, who work at some employment when the school is not 
in session. These teachers have no professional training, and 
their academic qualifications are meagre in the extreme. In 
the state of Hew York alone there are 10,0CC such schools and 
in Illinois, 10,677. Of the latter 76 have less than 5 pupils 
525 less than 10 and 1050 less than 15. As practically all 
the conditions are unfavorable to efficient work, their con- 
tinuance constitutes a grave defect in the school system. 
The importance of this problem lies not so much in the number 
immediately affected as in the potency of their lives in 



-143- 



giving character to the nation. 

"Consolidated Schools, These are signs that the 
nation has at last grasped the bearing of the rural school 
problem, and is determined to set matters right. The 
committee of Twelve of the N.E.A. after careful inquiry into 
all the conditions of rural education, have recommended the 
amalgamation of adjacent district authorities, and the erection 
of central schools to which children would be conveyed. To 
Massachusetts belongs the honor of first adopting the policy 
of consolidated school districts, The small, inefficient, 
and unsanitary one-room school has quite disappeared from that 
state. From Massachusetts, the movement has spread all over 
the west, 

"783 schools have been abandoned in Indiana. The 
cost is less than formerly. The gain in efficiency is enormous 
The central or consolidated school, indeed, promises to give 
to the rural child equal educational opportunity with his 
urban fellow." 

the Teachers Encyclopaedia, Vol, 6, p. 11. 

♦The rural school can be brought up to what such an 
institution ought to be only by a great campaign of enlighten- 
ment and education along broad lines. Publis opinion must 
be shaped, and the public will be aroused to activity. Some 
of the great needs are more money, better teachers, better scho 
plants and school grounds, as much improved and enriched course 
of study, and a longer school year. But of stillgreater 



-144- 

movement is that enlightened public opinion which knows 
what it wants In the rural school and how to get it. 

The rural schools of Germany have as much and as 
efficient supervision as the urban. The normal course is 
the same for both and the nevr teacher must first be sent to 
the town. Teachers must be tv/enty four years old before 
beginning to teach, 

With minor exceptions, rural school architecture 
has remained unimproved for about a generation, while during 
the same period there has been the greatest activity in the 
development and improvement of urban school architecture. 
School for school the expenditure for apparatus in the city 
is 154 times as great as that for the rural school. In 
the way of location, ventilation, comforts, and conveniences, 
the rural school is not to be compared to the city. The 
progress of the course of study is much faster in the city 
than in the country. In the teaching force there is no 
comparison. 

The rural school has been almost entirely untouched 
by the hand of the skilled supervisor. The greater number of 
the rural schools are left to their own devices, and to the 
youth, inexperience, and limited knowledge of the rural teacher. 

There is no other agency in our school system that 
has done so much for the improvement of our schools in organ- 
isation , and in methods of instruction and discipline, as 
the superint endency . The most competent superintendents have 



-145- 



the best schools, and the cities noted for their excellence 
in school work have attained this preeminence through the 
medium of intelligent supervision. The annual or semi- 
annual visit of a county superintendent or school commissioner 
is scarcely to be styled supervision. 

The future of our country depends upon how the rural 
districts bring up their children. Fields, flowers, blue sky, 
a neglected school, and an underpaid and ill prepared teacher 
are not enough, left to themselves to wield the desired 
influence upon these children. Trained leadership is as much 
needed in the developaent of country life and thought as it has 
been needed for the same purposes in the city. Such leader- 
ship will cost something - something in ^oney and not less, 
something in terms of social appreciation and confidence. The 
rural school of the future will be the social center of the 
community. It will be a seminary of physical, intellectual 
and moral culture. Here we shall have the telephone, the 
telegraph, the typewriter, the newspaper, and the magazine. It 
will be a consolidated school with high school subjects; it 
will bea well supervised school; it will have architectural 
and hygenic features far superior to those of the isolated rural 
school; it will have laboratories and rooms for other special 
classes; there will be experimental contact under trained 
agricultural leadership with the various phases and problems 
of farming; and it will own land on which to work. 

It will have more college graduates for teachers. 
This will include those of educational training, so that the 



-146- 



teacher will be in intelligent sympathy with country life.* 

ed from John Coult 
the United States" 



^Quoted from John Coulter Ph.D. in "The Rural School in 



♦The excellence of schools depends upon the 
supervision. All who have any understanding of our schools 
see that their excellence depends upon the qudity and the 
closeness of the "supervision"; there is no supervision in 
the rural districts as really capable men and women of the 
schools now use that term. 

What is school supervision? School supervision 
brings the knowledge, the experience, and the spirit of a 
first class teacher to the everyday operations of the schools. 
A school superintendent does not make itunecessary to have the 
best teachers; he can not make up for the shortcomings of weak 
teachers; but he helps to prepare teaclhers, he helps to adapt 
teachers to particular places, and he helps to develop in 
the teachers the best teaching of which they are capable. He 
lays out the work of each school; he equalizes advantages to 
all the schools under his supervision. Ke advises trustees, 
adjusts difficulties arising between teacher and child, or 
teacher and parent. He must visit the school often in order to 
keep himself fresh and progressive in his work. He must have 
all the teachers together occasionally in order to effect 
oneness of purpose and inspire alertness and enthusiasm in all 
of the schools. He must quicken pupils as well as teachers. 



-147- 



He must be a worker, a friend of sport, a sbholar, progressive. 
He must have a share in educational meetings of state and 
nat ion. 

There is no such supervision in the farming district. 
Such supervision has developed very rapidly in the cities of 
the State in the last forty or fifty years. , It is this that 
has made for the quite uniform excellence of the city schools. 
This has grown in the cities with their own growth. It is true 
that we have had supervisory officers in all parte of the state 
from the very beginning but progressive ideals in supervision 
have forged ahead in the cities arid not at all in the country.* 

♦Quoted from a, s. Draper in "Shall We Have School 
Supervision in the Pural Districts?". 



-148- 



Bibliography . 

A. C. I/lonahan - Supervision of Rural Schools in the United 

States in the Twelfth Yearbook, pages 14 and 15. 

A. E. Winship - A Massachusetts District, Journal of Education, 
May 15, 1913. 

C«.rl Hartman in Bulletin of Texas University. 

United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1913, Number 46. 

A. E. Winship - Rural Cook County f 3 Leadership, Jounral of 
Education, June 19, 1913. 

A. P. Laurie, M.A., D.Sc.- The Teacher's Encyclopaedia, Vol.6, P . 1] 

John C. Hockenberry, Ph.D. - The Rural School in the United States 

United States Bureau of Education Bulletin 1913, Number 20. 

Frank ',7. Miller, The Fifty-eighth Annual Report of the State 
Commis si one r of Common Schools of Ohio. 

N. R. Baker, State Supervisor of Rural Schools, Annual Report 

to Superintendent of E due at ion in Annual Report 
of Department of Education of Alabama, 1913, p. 33. 

Grace M, Shepherd, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Idaho. 

Eleventh F.iennial report, 1912, pages 12 and 23. 

A. C. Nelson, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Utah, 
Ninth Report, 1912, page 19. 

Francis a. Blair, State Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
Illinois, Annual Reports of 1909, 1910, 1911, 
and 1912. 

A. S. Draper, Commissioner of Education of New York, Ninth 
Annual Report, 1913, page 72. 

A. S. Draper, Shall We Have School Supervision in the Rural 
Schools? 

United States Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1912, Number 20. 

General Report and Analysis of 13th census of the United States 

Population, Vol.1, California School Report (Recent 



3